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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Eng Kevin H) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Eng Kevin H)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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1.
  • Phelan, Catherine M, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:5, s. 680-691
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.
2.
  • Fresard, Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of rare-disease genes using blood transcriptome sequencing and large control cohorts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 25:6, s. 911-919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene(1). The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches(2-5). For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases(6-8). This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders(6,9), and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders(7). However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.
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3.
  • Villa, Luisa L., et al. (författare)
  • Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 356:19, s. 1915-1927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. A phase 3 trial was conducted to evaluate a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV-6/11/16/18) for the prevention of high-grade cervical lesions associated with HPV-16 and HPV-18. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 12,167 women between the ages of 15 and 26 years to receive three doses of either HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo, administered at day 1, month 2, and month 6. The primary analysis was performed for a per-protocol susceptible population that included 5305 women in the vaccine group and 5260 in the placebo group who had no virologic evidence of infection with HPV-16 or HPV-18 through 1 month after the third dose (month 7). The primary composite end point was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer related to HPV-16 or HPV-18. RESULTS: Subjects were followed for an average of 3 years after receiving the first dose of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine efficacy for the prevention of the primary composite end point was 98% (95.89% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 100) in the per-protocol susceptible population and 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) in an intention-to-treat population of all women who had undergone randomization (those with or without previous infection). The estimated vaccine efficacy against all high-grade cervical lesions, regardless of causal HPV type, in this intention-to-treat population was 17% (95% CI, 1 to 31). CONCLUSIONS: In young women who had not been previously infected with HPV-16 or HPV-18, those in the vaccine group had a significantly lower occurrence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia related to HPV-16 or HPV-18 than did those in the placebo group.
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4.
  • Singel, Kelly L., et al. (författare)
  • Mature neutrophils suppress T cell immunity in ovarian cancer microenvironment
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JCI Insight. - The American Society for Clinical Investigation. - 2379-3708. ; 4:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) often presents with metastases and ascites. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are an immature population that impairs antitumor immunity. Since suppressive granulocytes in the ascites of patients with newly diagnosed EOC were morphologically mature, we hypothesized that PMN were rendered suppressive in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Circulating PMN from patients were not suppressive but acquired a suppressor phenotype (defined as ≥1 log10 reduction of anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated T cell proliferation) after ascites supernatant exposure. Ascites supernatants (20 of 31 supernatants) recapitulated the suppressor phenotype in PMN from healthy donors. T cell proliferation was restored with ascites removal and restimulation. PMN suppressors also inhibited T cell activation and cytokine production. PMN suppressors completely suppressed proliferation in naive, central memory, and effector memory T cells and in engineered tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while antigen-specific cell lysis was unaffected. Inhibition of complement C3 activation and PMN effector functions, including CR3 signaling, protein synthesis, and vesicular trafficking, abrogated the PMN suppressor phenotype. Moreover, malignant effusions from patients with various metastatic cancers also induced the C3-dependent PMN suppressor phenotype. These results point to PMN impairing T cell expansion and activation in the TME and the potential for complement inhibition to abrogate this barrier to antitumor immunity.
5.
  • Singel, Kelly L., et al. (författare)
  • Mitochondrial DNA in the tumor microenvironment activates neutrophils and is associated with worsened outcomes in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Advanced cancer causes necrosis and releases damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial DAMPs activate neutrophils, including generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are injurious, thrombogenic, and implicated in metastasis. We hypothesized that extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ascites from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) would correlate with worsened outcomes.Banked ascites supernatants from patients with newly diagnosed advanced EOC were analyzed for mtDNA, neutrophil elastase, and activation of healthy donor neutrophils and platelets. TCGA was mined for expression of SELPand ELANE. The highest quartile of ascites mtDNA correlated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) and a higher likelihood of disease progression within 12-months following primary surgery (n=68, log-rank, p=0.0178). NETs were detected in resected tumors. Ascites supernatants chemoattracted neutrophils, induced NETs, and activated platelets. Ascites exposure rendered neutrophils suppressive, based on abrogation of ex vivostimulated T cell proliferation. Increased SELPmRNA expression correlated with worsened overall survival (n=302, Cox model, p=0.02).In this single-center retrospective analysis, ascites mtDNA correlated with worsened PFS in advanced EOC. Our results support mitochondrial and other DAMPs activating neutrophil and platelet responses that facilitate metastasis and obstruct anti-tumor immunity. These pathways are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.
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6.
  • Singel, Kelly L., et al. (författare)
  • Mitochondrial DNA in the tumour microenvironment activates neutrophils and is associated with worse outcomes in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920. ; 120:2, s. 207-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer causes necrosis and releases damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial DAMPs activate neutrophils, including generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are injurious, thrombogenic, and implicated in metastasis. We hypothesised that extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ascites from patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) would correlate with worse outcomes.METHODS: Banked ascites supernatants from patients with newly diagnosed advanced EOC were analysed for mtDNA, neutrophil elastase, and activation of healthy donor neutrophils and platelets. TCGA was mined for expression of SELP and ELANE.RESULTS: The highest quartile of ascites mtDNA correlated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) and a higher likelihood of disease progression within 12-months following primary surgery (n = 68, log-rank, p = 0.0178). NETs were detected in resected tumours. Ascites supernatants chemoattracted neutrophils, induced NETs, and activated platelets. Ascites exposure rendered neutrophils suppressive, based on abrogation of ex vivo stimulated T cell proliferation. Increased SELP mRNA expression correlated with worse overall survival (n = 302, Cox model, p = 0.02).CONCLUSION: In this single-centre retrospective analysis, ascites mtDNA correlated with worse PFS in advanced EOC. Mitochondrial and other DAMPs in ascites may activate neutrophil and platelet responses that facilitate metastasis and obstruct anti-tumour immunity. These pathways are potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.
7.
  • Dale, Virginia H., et al. (författare)
  • Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1757-1693. ; 9:8, s. 1296-1305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The ongoing debate about costs and benefits of wood-pellet based bioenergy production in the southeastern United States (SE USA) requires an understanding of the science and context influencing market decisions associated with its sustainability. Production of pellets has garnered much attention as US exports have grown from negligible amounts in the early 2000s to 4.6 million metric tonnes in 2015. Currently, 98% of these pellet exports are shipped to Europe to displace coal in power plants. We ask, 'How is the production of wood pellets in the SE USA affecting forest systems and the ecosystem services they provide?' To address this question, we review current forest conditions and the status of the wood products industry, how pellet production affects ecosystem services and biodiversity, and what methods are in place to monitor changes and protect vulnerable systems. Scientific studies provide evidence that wood pellets in the SE USA are a fraction of total forestry operations and can be produced while maintaining or improving forest ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are protected by the requirement to utilize loggers trained to apply scientifically based best management practices in planning and implementing harvest for the export market. Bioenergy markets supplement incomes to private rural landholders and provide an incentive for forest management practices that simultaneously benefit water quality and wildlife and reduce risk of fire and insect outbreaks. Bioenergy also increases the value of forest land to landowners, thereby decreasing likelihood of conversion to nonforest uses. Monitoring and evaluation are essential to verify that regulations and good practices are achieving goals and to enable timely responses if problems arise. Conducting rigorous research to understand how conditions change in response to management choices requires baseline data, monitoring, and appropriate reference scenarios. Long-term monitoring data on forest conditions should be publicly accessible and utilized to inform adaptive management.
8.
  • Labbé, David P., et al. (författare)
  • TOP2A and EZH2 provide early detection of an aggressive prostate cancer subgroup
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 23:22, s. 7072-7083
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Current clinical parameters do not stratify indolent from aggressive prostate cancer. Aggressive prostate cancer, defined by the progression from localized disease to metastasis, is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer–associated mortality. Recent gene expression profiling has proven successful in predicting the outcome of prostate cancer patients; however, they have yet to provide targeted therapy approaches that could inhibit a patient's progression to metastatic disease. Experimental Design: We have interrogated a total of seven primary prostate cancer cohorts (n = 1,900), two metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer datasets (n = 293), and one prospective cohort (n = 1,385) to assess the impact of TOP2A and EZH2 expression on prostate cancer cellular program and patient outcomes. We also performed IHC staining for TOP2A and EZH2 in a cohort of primary prostate cancer patients (n = 89) with known outcome. Finally, we explored the therapeutic potential of a combination therapy targeting both TOP2A and EZH2 using novel prostate cancer–derived murine cell lines. Results: We demonstrate by genome-wide analysis of independent primary and metastatic prostate cancer datasets that concurrent TOP2A and EZH2 mRNA and protein upregulation selected for a subgroup of primary and metastatic patients with more aggressive disease and notable overlap of genes involved in mitotic regulation. Importantly, TOP2A and EZH2 in prostate cancer cells act as key driving oncogenes, a fact highlighted by sensitivity to combination-targeted therapy. Conclusions: Overall, our data support further assessment of TOP2A and EZH2 as biomarkers for early identification of patients with increased metastatic potential that may benefit from adjuvant or neoadjuvant targeted therapy approaches.
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