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  • Cawthon, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • Putative Cut-Points in Sarcopenia Components and Incident Adverse Health Outcomes: AnSDOCAnalysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - : WILEY. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 68:7, s. 1429-1437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES Analyses performed by the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) identified cut-points in several metrics of grip strength for consideration in a definition of sarcopenia. We describe the associations between the SDOC-identified metrics of low grip strength (absolute or standardized to body size/composition); low dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lean mass as previously defined in the literature (appendicular lean mass [ALM]/ht(2)); and slowness (walking speed <.8 m/s) with subsequent adverse outcomes (falls, hip fractures, mobility limitation, and mortality). DESIGN Individual-level, sex-stratified pooled analysis. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) for incident falls, mobility limitation, hip fractures, and mortality. Follow-up time ranged from 1 year for falls to 8.8 +/- 2.3 years for mortality. SETTING Eight prospective observational cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS A total of 13,421 community-dwelling men and 4,828 community-dwelling women. MEASUREMENTS Grip strength by hand dynamometry, gait speed, and lean mass by DXA. RESULTS Low grip strength (absolute or standardized to body size/composition) was associated with incident outcomes, usually independently of slowness, in both men and women. ORs and HRs generally ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 for those below vs above the cut-point. DXA lean mass was not consistently associated with these outcomes. When considered together, those who had both muscle weakness by absolute grip strength (<35.5 kg in men and <20 kg in women) and slowness were consistently more likely to have a fall, hip fracture, mobility limitation, or die than those without either slowness or muscle weakness. CONCLUSION Older men and women with both muscle weakness and slowness have a higher likelihood of adverse health outcomes. These results support the inclusion of grip strength and walking speed as components in a summary definition of sarcopenia.
  • LeBlanc, Erin S, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin levels on fracture risk in older men.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 94:9, s. 3337-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The relationship between sex steroids and fracture is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine associations between nonvertebral fracture risk and bioavailable estradiol (bioE2), bioavailable testosterone (bioT), and SHBG. DESIGN: This was a case-cohort study. SETTING: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) was conducted in a prospective U.S. cohort in 5995 community-dwelling men 65 yr old or older. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included a subcohort of 1436 randomly chosen white men plus all 446 minorities and all those with incident hip and other nonvertebral fractures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline testosterone and estradiol were measured by mass spectrometry (MS) and SHBG by RIA. RESULTS: Men with the lowest bioE2 (<11.4 pg/ml) or highest SHBG (>59.1 nm) had greater risk of all nonvertebral fractures [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval]: 1.5 (1.2-1.9) and 1.4 (1.1-21.8), respectively]. Men with the lowest bioT (<163.5 ng/dl) had no increased fracture risk after adjustment for bioE2 [adjusted HR 1.16 (0.90-1.49)]. A significant interaction between SHBG and bioT (P = 0.03) resulted in men with low bioT and high SHBG having higher fracture risk [HR 2.1 (1.4-3.2)]. Men with low bioE2, low bioT, and high SHBG were at highest risk [HR 3.4 (2.2-5.3)]. CONCLUSIONS: Older men with low bioE2 or high SHBG levels are at increased risk of nonvertebral fracture. When SHBG levels are high, men with low bioT levels have higher risk. The strongest association occurred when all measures were considered in combination.
  • Orwoll, Eric S, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for geographical and racial variation in serum sex steroid levels in older men.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 95:10, s. E151-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite considerable racial and geographical differences in human phenotypes and in the incidence of diseases that may be associated with sex steroid action, there are few data concerning variation in sex steroid levels among populations. We designed an international study to determine the degree to which geography and race influence sex steroid levels in older men. Methods: Using mass spectrometry, concentrations of serum androgens, estrogens, and sex steroid precursors/metabolites were measured in 5003 older men from five countries. SHBG levels were assessed using radioimmunoassay. Results: There was substantial geographical variation in the levels of sex steroids, precursors, and metabolites, as well as SHBG. For instance, Asian men in Hong Kong and Japan, but not in the United States, had levels of total testosterone approximately 20% higher than in other groups. Even greater variation was present in levels of estradiol, SHBG, and dihydrotestosterone. Group differences in body mass index did not explain most geographical differences. In addition, body mass index-independent racial differences were present; Black men had higher levels of estrogens (estradiol, estrone), and Asian men had lower levels of glucuronidated androgen metabolites. Conclusions: On a global scale, there are important geographical and racial differences in the concentrations of serum sex steroids and SHBG in older men.
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