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Sökning: WFRF:(Eriksson BI)

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1.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
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  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Akre [Fall], Katja, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for gastric cancer after antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip replacement
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - Birmingham, USA : American Asoociation for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 60:22, s. 6376-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite strong evidence of an association between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, the benefit of eradicating H. pylori infection is unknown. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that exposure to high doses of antibiotics reduces risk for gastric cancer via possible eradication of H. pylori We conducted a nationwide case-control study nested in a cohort of 39,154 patients who underwent hip replacement surgery between 1965 and 1983. Such patients frequently receive prophylactic antibiotic treatment. During follow-up through 1989, we identified 189 incident cases of gastric cancer. For each case, three controls were selected from the cohort. Exposure data were abstracted from hospital records. Blood samples from a separate cohort undergoing hip replacement surgery were analyzed for anti-H. pylori IgG before and after surgery. Both long-term antibiotic treatment before surgery [odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1-0.7] and prophylactic antibiotic treatment (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-1.1) conferred a reduction in gastric cancer risk. The reduction appeared stronger after 5 years (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-1.2) than during shorter follow-up after hip replacement (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.7). There was an apparent decrease in risk with increasing body weight-adjusted doses of antibiotics (P = 0.13). However, the rate of H. pylori antibody disappearance was not strikingly higher in the cohort of patients undergoing hip replacement than in a control cohort. Our findings provide indirect support for the hypothesis that treatment with antibiotics at a relatively advanced age reduces the risk of gastric cancer.
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5.
  • Andernord, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical Predictors of Early Revision Surgery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results From the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register on 13,102 Patients.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The American journal of sports medicine. - 1552-3365. ; 42:7, s. 1574-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:An important objective of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) registries is to detect and report early graft failure and revision surgery after ACL reconstruction. PURPOSE:To investigate surgical variables and identify predictors of revision surgery after ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN:Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS:This prospective cohort study was based on data from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register during the years 2005 through 2011. Eight surgical variables were investigated: graft selection, graft width, single-bundle or double-bundle techniques, femoral graft fixation, tibial graft fixation, injury-to-surgery interval, injuries to menisci, and injuries to cartilage. The primary endpoint was the 2-year incidence of revision surgery. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and adjusted for confounders by use of multivariate statistics. RESULTS:A total of 13,102 patients were included (5541 women [42%] and 7561 men [58%]; P < .001). Hamstring tendon autografts accounted for 90% (11,764 patients) of all reconstructions, of which 96% were performed with a single-bundle technique (11,339 patients). Patellar tendon autografts accounted for the remaining 10% (1338 patients). At index reconstruction, observed injuries to menisci and cartilage were common (40% and 28%, respectively). The overall 2-year incidence of revision surgery was 1.60% (women, 1.57%; men, 1.63%; P = .854). Patients with metal interference screw fixation of a semitendinosus tendon autograft on the tibia had a significantly reduced risk of early revision surgery (RR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12-0.90; P = .031). CONCLUSION:Metal interference screw fixation of a semitendinosus tendon autograft on the tibia was an independent predictor of significantly lower 2-year incidence of revision surgery. Graft selection, graft width, a single-bundle or a double-bundle technique, femoral graft fixation, the injury-to-surgery interval, and meniscus injury were not predictors of early revision surgery.
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  • Kasina, P., et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative Thromboprophylaxis With New Oral Anticoagulants is Superior to LMWH in Hip Arthroplasty Surgery: Findings from the Swedish Registry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical orthopaedics and related research. - 1528-1132. ; 477:6, s. 1335-1343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although the use of thromboprophylaxis is well established, there is no consensus on the preferred thromboprophylaxis regimen after THA; large, population-based studies offer an opportunity to examine this problem in a robust way that can complement results from randomized trials. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Using data from a large national registry, we asked: (1) Is there any difference between low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and new oral anticoagulants in preventing symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), after THA? (2) Are there any differences in safety parameters, such as bleeding, reoperations and mortality, between LMWH and new oral anticoagulants? METHODS: Between 2008 and 2012, 78,066 THAs were performed in Sweden. This study evaluated 32,663 (42%) of them, selected through the merger of several national registries. These patients underwent unilateral THA due to primary osteoarthritis. They had not experienced any venous thromboembolic events 5 years before the index operation and were not prescribed potent antithrombotic agents, of any type, in the 6 months before the index operation. Additionally, their postoperative thromboprophylaxis was confirmed in a national registry by purchase of prescribed medications. We divided the cohort into two groups: those patients who received new oral anticoagulants (5752, 18%) and those who received LMWH (26,881, 82%) as postoperative thromboprophylaxis. Our primary endpoints were the frequencies of symptomatic DVT and symptomatic PE within 3 months of surgery. Our secondary comparison was a between-group comparison of bleeding (by way of diagnostic coding), reoperation, and mortality within 3 months of surgery. Odds ratios (OR) are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as pooled results for the two groups after adjustment for duration of thromboprophylaxis (short or extended for at least 28 days), year of the index operation, Elixhauser comorbidity index, sex, age and previous treatment with platelet aggregation inhibitors. RESULTS: The risk of symptomatic DVT was lower in the group that received new oral anticoagulants than the group that received LMWH (0.3% versus 0.6%, OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.76; p = 0.026). The risk of symptomatic PE was lower in the group that received new oral anticoagulants than the group that received LMWH (0.1% versus 0.4%, OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.69; p = 0.005). There was no difference in the risk of bleeding (by way of diagnostic coding) (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82-1.28; p = 0.688), reoperation (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.44; p = 0.860) or mortality (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.31-1.88; p = 0.883) between groups. CONCLUSIONS: New oral anticoagulants were associated with a lower risk of symptomatic DVT and symptomatic PE in this large, registry study, and we observed no differences in the risk of bleeding, reoperation, or death between the groups. Although we were able to control for a number of potential confounding variables, we cannot ascertain the indications that drove the prescription decisions in this setting, and there were important between-group differences in terms of duration of thromboprophylaxis (new oral anticoagulants generally were used for a longer period of time after surgery). Future studies, preferably large randomized trials with pragmatic inclusion criteria, to analyze symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE and death are needed to confirm or refute our findings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.
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9.
  • Kottyan, Leah C., et al. (författare)
  • The IRF5-TNPO3 association with systemic lupus erythematosus has two components that other autoimmune disorders variably share.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:2, s. 582-596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exploiting genotyping, DNA sequencing, imputation and trans-ancestral mapping, we used Bayesian and frequentist approaches to model the IRF5-TNPO3 locus association, now implicated in two immunotherapies and seven autoimmune diseases. Specifically, in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we resolved separate associations in the IRF5 promoter (all ancestries) and with an extended European haplotype. We captured 3230 IRF5-TNPO3 high-quality, common variants across 5 ethnicities in 8395 SLE cases and 7367 controls. The genetic effect from the IRF5 promoter can be explained by any one of four variants in 5.7 kb (P-valuemeta = 6 × 10(-49); OR = 1.38-1.97). The second genetic effect spanned an 85.5-kb, 24-variant haplotype that included the genes IRF5 and TNPO3 (P-valuesEU = 10(-27)-10(-32), OR = 1.7-1.81). Many variants at the IRF5 locus with previously assigned biological function are not members of either final credible set of potential causal variants identified herein. In addition to the known biologically functional variants, we demonstrated that the risk allele of rs4728142, a variant in the promoter among the lowest frequentist probability and highest Bayesian posterior probability, was correlated with IRF5 expression and differentially binds the transcription factor ZBTB3. Our analytical strategy provides a novel framework for future studies aimed at dissecting etiological genetic effects. Finally, both SLE elements of the statistical model appear to operate in Sjögrens syndrome and systemic sclerosis whereas only the IRF5-TNPO3 gene-spanning haplotype is associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, demonstrating the nuance of similarity and difference in autoimmune disease risk mechanisms at IRF5-TNPO3.
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10.
  • Olsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Ability to perform a single heel-rise is significantly related to patient-reported outcome after Achilles tendon rupture.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. - 1600-0838. ; 24:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study evaluated the short-term recovery of function after an acute Achilles tendon rupture, measured by a single-legged heel-rise test, with main emphasis on the relation to the patient-reported outcomes and fear of physical activity and movement (kinesiophobia). Eighty-one patients treated surgically or non-surgically with early active rehabilitation after Achilles tendon rupture were included in the study. Patient's ability to perform a single-legged heel-rise, physical activity level, patient-reported symptoms, general health, and kinesiophobia was evaluated 12 weeks after the injury. The heel-rise test showed that 40 out of 81 (49%) patients were unable to perform a single heel-rise 12 weeks after the injury. We found that patients who were able to perform a heel-rise were significantly younger, more often of male gender, reported a lesser degree of symptoms, and also had a higher degree of physical activity at 12 weeks. There was also a significant negative correlation between kinesiophobia and all the patient-reported outcomes and the physical activity level. The heel-rise ability appears to be an important early achievement and reflects the general level of healing, which influences patient-reported outcome and physical activity. Future treatment protocols focusing on regaining strength early after the injury therefore seem to be of great importance. Kinesiophobia needs to be addressed early during the rehabilitation process.
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