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1.
  • Damberg, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of transcription factor AP-2 beta genotype in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience letters. - 0304-3940. ; 377:1, s. 49-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has repeatedly been shown that the serotonergic system is involved in the symptomatology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD are reported to differ from symptom-free controls with regard to serotonin-related biological markers. Evidence from family and twin studies suggests a genetic contribution to the aetiology of PMDD. The expression of human transcription factor AP-2beta in neural crest cell lineages and neuroectodermal cells suggests that this protein may be of importance for functional characteristics of neurons by regulating the expression of target genes. Within the monoaminergic systems, several genes have binding sites for AP-2beta in regulatory regions, suggesting an involvement of AP-2beta in these systems. The gene encoding AP-2beta is located on chromosome 6p12-p21.1 and includes a polymorphic region consisting of a variable number of [CAAA] repeats located in the second intron. We have earlier shown that AP-2beta genotype is associated with serotonergic phenotypes and that brainstem levels of AP-2beta correlate positively to serotonin metabolism in rat frontal cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between PMDD and transcription factor AP-2beta genotype. The participants included 176 women with PMDD and 91 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reactions. We did not observe any differences in AP-2beta genotype frequencies between PMDD subjects and controls. Our results suggest that AP-2beta genotype is not a risk factor for PMDD. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating transcription factor AP-2beta genotype in women with PMDD. Hence, these results should be considered preliminary until replicated.
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2.
  • Eriksson, Jonna M., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of co-twin gender on neurodevelopmental symptoms: a twin register study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular autism. - 2040-2392. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. It has been hypothesized that exposure to elevated levels of prenatal testosterone is associated with elevated traits of ASD and ADHD. Assuming that testosterone levels from a dizygotic male twin fetus may lead to enhanced testosterone exposure of its co‐twins, we aimed to test the prenatal testosterone hypothesis by comparing same‐sex with opposite‐sex dizygotic twins with respect to neurodevelopmental symptoms. Methods: Neuropsychiatric traits were assessed in a population‐based twin cohort from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Parental interviews were conducted for 16,312 dizygotic twins, 9 and 12 years old, with the Autism–Tics, ADHD, and other Comorbidities inventory (A‐TAC). Results: Girls with a female co‐twin had an increased risk of reaching the cut‐off score for ADHD compared with girls with a male co‐twin. Both boys and girls with a female co‐twin displayed a larger number of traits related to attention deficit and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors than those with a male twin. In girls, this also extended to social interaction and the combined measures for ASD and ADHD, however with small effect sizes. Conclusions: Our results are reverse to what would have been expected from the prenatal testosterone hypothesis but consistent with a previous study of ASD and ADHD traits in dizygotic twins. The seemingly protective effect for girls of having a twin brother may be an effect of parent report bias, but may also be an unexpected effect of sharing the intrauterine environment with a male co‐twin.
3.
  • Bejerot, Susanne, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • The extreme male brain revisited: gender coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - 0007-1250. ; 201:2, s. 116-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The 'extreme male brain' theory suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extreme variant of male intelligence. However, somewhat paradoxically, many individuals with ASD display androgynous physical features regardless of gender.Aims: To assess physical measures, supposedly related to androgen influence, in adults with and without ASD.Method: Serum hormone levels, anthropometry, the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) and psychiatric symptomatology were measured in 50 adults with high-functioning ASD and age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls. Photographs of face and body, as well as voice recordings, were obtained and assessed with respect to gender coherence, blindly and independently, by eight assessors.Results: Women with ASD had higher total and bioactive testosterone levels, less feminine facial features and a larger head circumference than female controls. Men in the ASD group were assessed as having less masculine body characteristics and voice quality, and displayed higher (i.e. less masculine) 2D:4D ratios, but similar testosterone levels to controls. Androgynous facial features correlated strongly and positively with autistic traits measured with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in the total sample. In males and females with ASD dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not decrease with age, in contrast to the control group.Conclusions: Women with ASD had elevated testosterone levels and several masculinised characteristics compared with controls, whereas men with ASD displayed several feminised characteristics. Our findings suggest that ASD, rather than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may constitute a gender defiant disorder.
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4.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; 48:10, s. 1171-1184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure-associated loci, of which 17 were new; 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation.
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5.
  • Landén, Mikael, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Compounds with affinity for serotonergic receptors in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria: a comparison of buspirone, nefazodone and placebo.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - 0033-3158. ; 155:3, s. 292-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE: It is well established that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are effective for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria (PMD), but the receptor subtype(s) mediating this effect of serotonin have yet not been identified. OBJECTIVE: In this trial, the possible efficacy of buspirone, a partial 5HT1A receptor agonist, and nefazodone, a combined SRI and 5HT2 receptor antagonist, was evaluated in women with PMD. METHODS: After a three-menstrual-cycle screening phase, patients were randomised to buspirone (n=19), nefazodone (n=22) or placebo (n=22). During the first two treatment cycles, patients were taking the drug during the luteal phase only (mean +/- SD daily dose of buspirone: 21 +/- 6 mg; nefazodone: 228 +/- 54 mg). During the subsequent two cycles, the medication was taken each day of the menstrual cycle (mean daily dose of buspirone: 27 +/- 10 mg; nefazodone: 304 +/- 95 mg). RESULTS: With respect to self-rated global improvement, buspirone (P<0.001) but not nefazodone was significantly superior to placebo. While buspirone appeared to reduce self-rated irritability (visual analogue scale) more effectively than placebo, other self-rated symptoms did not differ markedly between the groups. The side-effects were mild, and sexual dysfunction was not significantly more common in patients given buspirone or nefazodone than in those given placebo. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that buspirone is mildly effective for premenstrual irritability. In patients experiencing sexual dysfunction when treated with an SRI, buspirone may be a useful alternative.
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6.
  • Melke, Jonas, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and platelet [3H] paroxetine binding in premenstrual dysphoria.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 28:3, s. 446-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate if women with premenstrual dysphoria differ from controls with respect to the number of platelet serotonin transporters, and with respect to three polymorphisms in the gene coding for the serotonin transporter: a 44 base pair insertion/deletion in the promoter region, a variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region. Also, the possible relationship between the three polymorphisms and platelet serotonin transporter density was analyzed. The density of platelet [(3)H]paroxetine binding sites was significantly lower in women with premenstrual dysphoria than in controls, but patients and controls did not differ with respect to allele or genotype frequency for any of the three polymorphisms examined. A significant association between the number of platelet serotonin transporters and the promoter polymorphism was observed, subjects being homozygous for the short (deletion) variant having higher platelet serotonin transporter density than subjects carrying the long (insertion) allele. The results support the assumption that serotonin-related psychiatric disorders-such as premenstrual dysphoria-may be associated with a reduction in platelet [(3)H]paroxetine binding, but argue against the notion that this reduction is due to certain variants of the serotonin transporter gene being more common in patients than in controls.
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7.
  • Agren, T, et al. (författare)
  • Human fear reconsolidation and allelic differences in serotonergic and dopaminergic genes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fear memory persistence, central for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, is partially genetically controlled. Recently, consolidation and reconsolidation processes have been reported to affect fear memory stability and integrity. This study explored the impact of reconsolidation processes and genetic make-up on fear reacquisition by manipulating reconsolidation, using extinction performed outside or inside a reconsolidation interval. Reacquisition measured by skin conductance responses was stronger in individuals that extinguished outside (6 h) than inside (10 min) the reconsolidation interval. However, the effect was predominantly present in val/val homozygotes of the functional val158met polymorphism of the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and in short-allele carriers of the serotonin-transporter length 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. These results demonstrate that reconsolidation of human fear memory is influenced by dopamine and serotonin-related genes.
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8.
  • Alexanderson, Camilla, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of having a male twin on body mass index and risk for dyslipidemia in middle-aged and old women.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Animal experiments suggest that exposure to elevated levels of androgens during development by means of so-called hormonal programming causes metabolic aberrations at adulthood. An indirect strategy to address the possible importance of such an influence also in humans would be to study female dizygotic twins, presuming that those with a twin brother-due to diffusion of testosterone-have been exposed to higher androgen levels prenatally.Design:We have compared 8409 women with a male twin with 9166 women with a dizygotic female twin with respect to self-reported indices of anthropometry and metabolic aberrations at age 42 or older.Results:Body mass index (BMI), body weight and rate of dyslipidemia were moderately, but significantly, higher in women from opposite-sexed (OS) twin pairs; splitting for age revealed this difference to be present in those 60 years of age only.Conclusion:The results (i) support the notion that comparisons of women with a twin brother with women from same-sexed twin pairs may be used to shed light on possible long-term effects of interindividual variations in early androgen exposure, and (ii) suggest that the effects of early androgen exposure on metabolism previously observed in animal experiments are of relevance also for humans.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 8 March 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.18.
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9.
  • Andersson, Evelyn, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine systems and outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703Tpolymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.
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10.
  • Annerbrink, Kristina, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism and panic disorder: A replication.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 0165-1781. ; 178:1, s. 196-198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism and panic disorder was studied in a Swedish sample of 211 patients and 452 controls. We found a significant excess of the Val allele in both male and female patients, the latter but not the former finding being in line with previous studies.
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