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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Observation and measurements of the production of prompt and non-prompt [Formula: see text] mesons in association with a [Formula: see text] boson in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] with the ATLAS detector.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 75:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of a [Formula: see text] boson in association with a [Formula: see text] meson in proton-proton collisions probes the production mechanisms of quarkonium and heavy flavour in association with vector bosons, and allows studies of multiple parton scattering. Using [Formula: see text] of data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text], the first measurement of associated [Formula: see text] production is presented for both prompt and non-prompt [Formula: see text] production, with both signatures having a significance in excess of [Formula: see text]. The inclusive production cross-sections for [Formula: see text] boson production (analysed in [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] decay modes) in association with prompt and non-prompt [Formula: see text] are measured relative to the inclusive production rate of [Formula: see text] bosons in the same fiducial volume to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. Normalised differential production cross-section ratios are also determined as a function of the [Formula: see text] transverse momentum. The fraction of signal events arising from single and double parton scattering is estimated, and a lower limit of [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] confidence level is placed on the effective cross-section regulating double parton interactions.
3.
  • Abulaiti, Yiming, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the t(t)over-bar production cross-section as a function of jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :1, s. 1-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The t (t) over bar production cross-section dependence on jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum is reported for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in the single-lepton channel. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and comprise the full 2011 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). Differential cross-sections are presented as a function of the jet multiplicity for up to eight jets using jet transverse momentum thresholds of 25, 40, 60, and 80 GeV, and as a function of jet transverse momentum up to the fifth jet. The results are shown after background subtraction and corrections for all known detector effects, within a kinematic range closely matched to the experimental acceptance. Several QCD-based Monte Carlo models are compared with the results. Sensitivity to the parton shower modelling is found at the higher jet multiplicities, at high transverse momentum of the leading jet and in the transverse momentum spectrum of the fifth leading jet. The MC@NLO+HERWIG MC is found to predict too few events at higher jet multiplicities.
4.
  • Bixby, Honor, et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
5.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for heavy Majorana neutrinos with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for heavy Majorana neutrinos in events containing a pair of high-p(T) leptons of the same charge and high-p(T) jets is presented. The search uses 20.3 fb(-1) of pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 8TeV. The data are found to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis based on the Standard Model expectation. In the context of a Type-I seesaw mechanism, limits are set on the production cross-section times branching ratio for production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the mass range between 100 and 500 GeV. The limits are subsequently interpreted as limits on the mixing between the heavy Majorana neutrinos and the Standard Model neutrinos. In the context of a left-right symmetric model, limits on the production cross-section times branching ratio are set with respect to the masses of heavy Majorana neutrinos and heavy gauge bosons W-R and Z'.
6.
  • Abulaiti, Yiming, et al. (författare)
  • Search for pair and single production of new heavy quarks that decay to a Z boson and a third-generation quark in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search is presented for the production of new heavy quarks that decay to a Z boson and a third-generation Standard Model quark. In the case of a new charge +2/3 quark (T), the decay targeted is T -> Zt, while the decay targeted for a new charge -1/3 quark (B) is B -> Zb. The search is performed with a dataset corresponding to 20.3 fb(-1) of p p collisions at root s = 8TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Selected events contain a high transverse momentum Z boson candidate reconstructed from a pair of oppositely charged same-flavor leptons (electrons or muons), and are analyzed in two channels defined by the absence or presence of a third lepton. Hadronic jets, in particular those with properties consistent with the decay of a b-hadron, are also required to be present in selected events. Different requirements are made on the jet activity in the event in order to enhance the sensitivity to either heavy quark pair production mediated by the strong interaction, or single production mediated by the electroweak interaction. No significant excess of events above the Standard Model expectation is observed, and lower limits are derived on the mass of vector-like T and B quarks under various branching ratio hypotheses, as well as upper limits on the magnitude of electroweak coupling parameters.
7.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 74:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets has been measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is based on the entire 2011 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). Inclusive and differential cross-section ratios for massive vector bosons decaying to electrons and muons are measured in association with jets with transverse momentum p(T) > 30 GeV and jet rapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 4.4. The measurements are compared to next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations and to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing leading-order matrix elements supplemented by parton showers.
8.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the top-quark pole mass using t(t)over-bar+1-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7 TeV pp collisions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The normalized differential cross section for top-quark pair production in association with at least one jet is studied as a function of the inverse of the invariant mass of the t (t) over bar + 1-jet system. This distribution can be used for a precise determination of the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The experimental analysis is based on proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). The selected events were identified using the lepton+jets top-quark-pair decay channel, where lepton refers to either an electron or a muon. The observed distribution is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics using the pole-mass scheme. With this method, the measured value of the top-quark pole mass, m(t)(pole), is: m(t)(pole) t = 173.7 +/- 1.5 (stat.) +/- 1.4 (syst.)(-0.5)(+1.0) (theory) GeV. This result represents the most precise measurement of the top-quark pole mass to date.
9.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for the spin-0 nature of the Higgs boson using ATLAS data
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 726:1-3, s. 120-144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of the spin and parity quantum numbers of the Higgs boson are presented, based on protonproton collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The Standard Model spin-parity J(P) = 0(+) hypothesis is compared with alternative hypotheses using the Higgs boson decays H -> gamma gamma, H -> ZZ* -> 4l and H -> WW* -> l nu l nu, as well as the combination of these channels. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 fb(-1) collected at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 8 TeV. For the H -> ZZ* -> 4l decay mode the dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1) collected at root s = 7 TeV is included. The data are compatible with the Standard Model J(P) = 0+ quantum numbers for the Higgs boson, whereas all alternative hypotheses studied in this Letter, namely some specific J(P) = 0(-), 1(+), 1(-), 2(+) models, are excluded at confidence levels above 97.8%. This exclusion holds independently of the assumptions on the coupling strengths to the Standard Model particles and in the case of the J(P) = 2(+) model, of the relative fractions of gluon-fusion and quark-antiquark production of the spin-2 particle. The data thus provide evidence for the spin-0 nature of the Higgs boson, with positive parity being strongly preferred. (C) 2013 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
10.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb plus Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at root s(NN) = 2.76TeV and pp interactions at root s(NN) = 2.76TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb(-1) and 4.2 pb(-1), respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < p(T) < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors R-AA and R-CP are presented in detail as a function of centrality, p(T) and eta. They show a distinct p(T)-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, R-AA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 +/- 0.01(stat.) +/- 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The R-AA distribution is consistent with flat vertical bar eta vertical bar dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.
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