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1.
  • Dalin, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and immunological characteristics of autoimmune addison disease : A nationwide swedish multicenter study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X. ; 102:2, s. 379-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Studies of the clinical and immunological features of autoimmune Addison disease (AAD) are needed to understand the disease burden and increased mortality. Objective: To provide upgraded data on autoimmune comorbidities, replacement therapy, autoantibody profiles, and cardiovascular risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, population-based study that included 660 AAD patients from the Swedish Addison Registry (2008-2014). When analyzing the cardiovascular risk factors, 3594 individuals from the population-based survey in Northern Sweden, MONICA (monitoring of trends and determinants of cardiovascular disease), served as controls. Main Outcome Measures: The endpoints were the prevalence of autoimmune comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Autoantibodies against 13 autoantigens were determined. Results: The proportion of 21-hydroxylase autoantibody-positive patients was 83%, and 62% of patients had ≥1 associated autoimmune diseases, more frequently coexisting in females (P < 0.0001). AAD patients had a lower body mass index (P < 0.0001) and prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027) compared with controls. Conventional hydrocortisone tablets were used by 89% of the patients, with a mean dose of 28.1 ± 8.5 mg/d. The mean hydrocortisone equivalent dose normalized to the body surface was 14.8±4.4 mg/m2/d. A greater hydrocortisone equivalent dose was associated with a greater incidence of hypertension (P = 0.046). Conclusions: Careful monitoring of AAD patients is warranted to detect associated autoimmune diseases. Contemporary Swedish AAD patients did not have an increased prevalence of overweight, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia. However, high glucocorticoid replacement doses could be a risk factor for hypertension.
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2.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
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3.
  • Eriksson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Cytokine Autoantibody Screening in the Swedish Addison Registry Identifies Patients With Undiagnosed APS1
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 103:1, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic disorder that features autoimmune Addison disease as a major component. Although APS1 accounts for only a small fraction of all patients with Addison disease, early identification of these individuals is vital to prevent the potentially lethal complications of APS1.Objective: To determine whether available serological and genetic markers are valuable screening tools for the identification of APS1 among patients diagnosed with Addison disease.Design: We systematically screened 677 patients with Addison disease enrolled in the Swedish Addison Registry for autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and interferon-α4. Autoantibody-positive patients were investigated for clinical manifestations of APS1, additional APS1-specific autoantibodies, and DNA sequence and copy number variations of AIRE.Results: In total, 17 patients (2.5%) displayed autoantibodies against interleukin-22 and/or interferon-α4, of which nine were known APS1 cases. Four patients previously undiagnosed with APS1 fulfilled clinical, genetic, and serological criteria. Hence, we identified four patients with undiagnosed APS1 with this screening procedure.Conclusion: We propose that patients with Addison disease should be routinely screened for cytokine autoantibodies. Clinical or serological support for APS1 should warrant DNA sequencing and copy number analysis of AIRE to enable early diagnosis and prevention of lethal complications.
4.
  • Johansson, Karl-Axel, et al. (författare)
  • The quality assurance process for the ARTSCAN head and neck study - a practical interactive approach for QA in 3DCRT and IMRT.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. - 0167-8140. ; 87:2, s. 290-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This paper describes the quality assurance (QA) work performed in the Swedish multicenter ARTSCAN (Accelerated RadioTherapy of Squamous cell CArcinomas in the head and Neck) trial to guarantee high quality in a multicenter study which involved modern radiotherapy such as 3DCRT or IMRT. Materials and methods: The study was closed in June 2006 with 750 randomised patients. Radiation therapy-related data for every patient were sent by each participating centre to the QA office where all trial data were reviewed, analysed and stored. In case of any deviation from the protocol, an interactive process was started between the QA office and the local responsible clinician and/or physicist to increase the compliance to the protocol for future randomised patients. Meetings and workshops were held on a regular basis for discussions on various trial-related issues and for the QA office to report on updated results. Results and discussion: This review covers the 734 patients out of a total of 750 who had entered the study. Deviations early in the study were corrected so that the overall compliance to the protocol was very high. There were only negligible variations in doses and dose distributions to target volumes for each specific site and stage. The quality of the treatments was high. Furthermore, an extensive database of treatment parameters was accumulated for future dose-volume vs. endpoint evaluations. Conclusions: This comprehensive QA programme increased the probability to draw firm conclusions from our study and may serve as a concept for QA work in future radiotherapy trials where comparatively small effects are searched for in a heterogeneous tumour population.
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5.
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6.
  • Strawbridge, Rona J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Identifies Nine Common Variants Associated With Fasting Proinsulin Levels and Provides New Insights Into the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 60:10, s. 2624-2634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired beta-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We have conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association tests of similar to 2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting proinsulin levels in 10,701 nondiabetic adults of European ancestry, with follow-up of 23 loci in up to 16,378 individuals, using additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, fasting insulin, and study-specific covariates. RESULTS-Nine SNPs at eight loci were associated with proinsulin levels (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Two loci (LARP6 and SGSM2) have not been previously related to metabolic traits, one (MADD) has been associated with fasting glucose, one (PCSK1) has been implicated in obesity, and four (TCF7L2, SLC3OA8, VPS13C/C2CD4A/B, and ARAP1, formerly CENTD2) increase T2D risk. The proinsulin-raising allele of ARAP1 was associated with a lower fasting glucose (P = 1.7 x 10(-4)), improved beta-cell function (P = 1.1 x 10(-5)), and lower risk of T2D (odds ratio 0.88; P = 7.8 x 10(-6)). Notably, PCSK1 encodes the protein prohormone convertase 1/3, the first enzyme in the insulin processing pathway. A genotype score composed of the nine proinsulin-raising alleles was not associated with coronary disease in two large case-control datasets. CONCLUSIONS-We have identified nine genetic variants associated with fasting proinsulin. Our findings illuminate the biology underlying glucose homeostasis and T2D development in humans and argue against a direct role of proinsulin in coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Diabetes 60:2624-2634, 2011
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7.
  • Toren, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Chronic airflow limitation and its relation to respiratory symptoms among ever-smokers and never-smokers : : a cross-sectional study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open Respiratory Research. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 2052-4439. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the presence of persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation (CAL). CAL is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) after bronchodilation, and FEV1:FVC less than the fifth percentile is often used as a cut-off for CAL. The aim was to investigate if increasing percentiles of FEV1:FVC were associated with any respiratory symptom (cough with phlegm, dyspnoea or wheezing) in a general population sample of never-smokers and ever-smokers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study comprising 15 128 adults (50-64 years), 7120 never-smokers and 8008 ever-smokers completed a respiratory questionnaire and performed FEV1 and FVC after bronchodilation. We calculated their z-scores for FEV1:FVC and defined the fifth percentile using the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference value, GLI5 and increasing percentiles up to GLI25. We analysed the associations between different strata of percentiles and prevalence of any respiratory symptom using multivariable logistic regression for estimation of OR. RESULTS: Among all subjects, regardless of smoking habits, the odds of any respiratory symptom were elevated up to the GLI15-20 strata. Among never-smokers, the odds of any respiratory symptom were elevated at GLI<5 (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.43 to 5.23) and at GLI5-10 (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.91), but not at higher percentiles. Among ever-smokers, the odds of any respiratory symptom were elevated from GLI<5 (OR 4.64, 95% CI 3.79 to 5.68) up to GLI≥25 (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.75). CONCLUSIONS: The association between percentages of FEV1:FVC and respiratory symptoms differed depending on smoking history. Our results support a higher percentile cut-off for FEV1:FVC for never-smokers and, in particular, for ever-smokers.
8.
  • Brodin, N. Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 50:6, s. 806-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction. The aim of this model study was to estimate and compare the risk of radiation-induced adverse late effects in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) treated with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), inversely-optimized arc therapy (RapidArc (R) (RA)) or spot-scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations. Material and methods. Treatment plans were created for all three techniques on 10 pediatric patients that have been treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) at our institution in 2007-2009. Plans were generated for two prescription CSI doses, 23.4 Gy and 36 Gy. Risk estimates were based on childhood cancer survivor data when available and secondary cancer (SC) risks were estimated as a function of age at exposure and attained age according to the organ-equivalent dose (OED) concept. Results. Estimates of SC risk was higher for the RA plans and differentiable from the estimates for 3D CRT at attained ages above 40 years. The risk of developing heart failure, hearing loss, hypothyroidism and xerostomia was highest for the 3D CRT plans. The risks of all adverse effects were estimated as lowest for the IMPT plans, even when including secondary neutron (SN) irradiation with high values of the neutron radiation weighting factors (WRneutron). Conclusions. When comparing RA and 3D CRT treatment for pediatric MB it is a matter of comparing higher SC risk against higher risks of non-cancer adverse events. Considering time until onset of the different complications is necessary to fully assess patient benefit in such a comparison. The IMPT plans, including SN dose contribution, compared favorably to the photon techniques in terms of all radiobiological risk estimates.
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9.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r<sup>2</sup> &lt; 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.</p>
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10.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:1, s. 25-U52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) &lt; 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.</p>
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