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Sökning: WFRF:(Erlund Iris)

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  • Aberg, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • A Dynamic Aspartate-to-Alanine Aminotransferase Ratio Provides Valid Predictions of Incident Severe Liver Disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: HEPATOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2471-254X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) is associated with liver fibrosis, but its predictive performance is suboptimal. We hypothesized that the association between AAR and liver disease depends on absolute transaminase levels and developed and validated a model to predict liver-related outcomes in the general population. A Cox regression model based on age, AAR, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (dynamic AAR [dAAR]) using restricted cubic splines was developed in Finnish population-based health-examination surveys (FINRISK, 2002-2012; n = 18,067) with linked registry data for incident liver-related hospitalizations, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver death. The model was externally validated for liver-related outcomes in a Swedish population cohort (Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk [AMORIS] subcohort; n = 126,941) and for predicting outcomes and/or prevalent fibrosis/cirrhosis in biopsied patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis C, or alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). The dynamic AAR model predicted liver-related outcomes both overall (optimism-corrected C-statistic, 0.81) and in subgroup analyses of the FINRISK cohort and identified persons with >10% risk for liver-related outcomes within 10 years. In independent cohorts, the C-statistic for predicting liver-related outcomes up to a 10-year follow-up was 0.72 in the AMORIS cohort, 0.81 in NAFLD, and 0.75 in ALD. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for detecting prevalent cirrhosis was 0.80-0.83 in NAFLD, 0.80 in hepatitis C, but only 0.71 in ALD. In ALD, model performance improved when using aspartate aminotransferase instead of ALT in the model (C-statistic, 0.84 for outcome; AUC, 0.82 for prevalent cirrhosis). Conclusion: A dAAR score provides prospective predictions for the risk of incident severe liver outcomes in the general population and helps detect advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. The dAAR score could potentially be used for screening the unselected general population and as a trigger for further liver evaluations.
  • Völzke, Henry, et al. (författare)
  • The krakow declaration on iodine: Tasks and responsibilities for prevention programs targeting iodine deficiency disorders
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Thyroid Journal. - 2235-0640 .- 2235-0802. ; 7, s. 201-204
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 European Thyroid Association. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. On April 18, 2018 the EUthyroid consortium released the Krakow Declaration on Iodine in response to the increasing concern about the deteriorating commitment of policymakers to address public health strategies against iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in the European populations. Regulators and policymakers should harmonize obligatory Universal Salt Iodization to ensure free trade of fortified foodstuffs in Europe. Similarly, iodized animal feed requires regulatory approval to ensure free trade within the EU. National governments and public health authorities have to perform harmonized monitoring and evaluation of fortification programs at regular intervals to ensure optimal iodine supply to the population. Scientists, together with public health care workers, patient organizations, industry, and the public should support measures necessary to ensure that IDD prevention programs are sustainable, as appropriate within a rapidly changing environment and further social awareness of the issue. The declaration defines measures and responsibilities to optimize IDD prevention.
  • Caspersen, Ida Henriette, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns and dietary determinants of essential and toxic elements in blood measured in mid-pregnancy : The Norwegian Environmental Biobank
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697. ; 671, s. 299-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Inadequate stores or intakes of essential minerals in pregnancy, or too high exposure to both toxic and essential elements, can have adverse effects on mother and child. The main aims of this study were to 1) describe the concentrations and patterns of essential and toxic elements measured in maternal whole blood during pregnancy; 2) identify dietary, lifestyle and sociodemographic determinants of element status; and 3) explore the impact of iron deficiency on blood element concentrations. Methods: This study is based on blood samples collected from 2982 women in gestational week 18 in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) which were analyzed as part of the Norwegian Environmental Biobank. We derived blood element patterns by exploratory factor analysis, and associations between blood element patterns and diet were explored using sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression. Results: Blood concentrations were determined for the essential elements (in the order of most abundant) Zn > Cu > Se > Mn > Mo > Co, and the toxic metals Pb > As > Hg > Cd > Tl. The concentrations were in ranges that were similar to or sometimes more favorable than in other pregnant and non-pregnant European women. We identified two blood element patterns; one including Zn, Se and Mn and another including Hg and As. For the Zn-Se-Mn pattern, use of multimineral supplements was the most important dietary determinant, while a high score in the Hg-As pattern was mainly determined by seafood consumption. Concentrations of Mn, Cd and Co were significantly higher in women with iron deficiency (plasma ferritin < 12 μg/L) than in women with plasma ferritin ≥ 12 μg/L. Conclusion: Our study illustrates complex relationships and coexistence of essential and toxic elements. Their potential interplay adds to the challenges of studies investigating health effects related to either diet or toxicants.
  • Li, Qian, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Metabolome and Circulating Vitamins Stratified Onset Age of an Initial Islet Autoantibody and Progression to Type 1 Diabetes : the TEDDY Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 70:1, s. 282-292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Children's plasma metabolome, especially lipidome reflects gene regulation and dietary exposures, heralding the development of islet autoantibodies (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The TEDDY study enrolled 8676 newborns by screening HLA-DR-DQ genotypes at six clinical centers in four countries; profiled metabolome and measured concentrations of ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), erythrocyte membrane fatty acids following birth until IA seroconversion under nested case-control design. We grouped children having an initial autoantibody only against insulin (IAA-first) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA-first) by unsupervised clustering of temporal lipidome, identifying a subgroup of children having early onset of each initial autoantibody, i.e., IAA-first by 12 months and GADA-first by 21 months, consistent with population-wide early seroconversion age. Differential analysis showed that infants having reduced plasma ascorbic acid and cholesterol experienced IAA-first earlier, while early onset of GADA-first was preceded by reduced sphingomyelins at infancy. Plasma 25(OH)D prior to either autoantibody was lower in T1D progressors compared to non-progressors, with simultaneous lower diglycerides, lysophosphatidylcholines, triglycerides, alanine before GADA-first. Plasma ascorbic acid and 25(OH)D at infancy were lower in HLA-DR3/DR4 children among IA cases but not in matched controls, implying gene expression dysregulation of circulating vitamins as latent signals for IA or T1D progression.
  • Mattila, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma ascorbic acid and the risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes : the TEDDY study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 63:2, s. 278-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: We studied the association of plasma ascorbic acid with the risk of developing islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes and examined whether SNPs in vitamin C transport genes modify these associations. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether the SNPs themselves are associated with the risk of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. Methods: We used a risk set sampled nested case–control design within an ongoing international multicentre observational study: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY). The TEDDY study followed children with increased genetic risk from birth to endpoints of islet autoantibodies (350 cases, 974 controls) and type 1 diabetes (102 cases, 282 controls) in six clinical centres. Control participants were matched for family history of type 1 diabetes, clinical centre and sex. Plasma ascorbic acid concentration was measured at ages 6 and 12 months and then annually up to age 6 years. SNPs in vitamin C transport genes were genotyped using the ImmunoChip custom microarray. Comparisons were adjusted for HLA genotypes and for background population stratification. Results: Childhood plasma ascorbic acid (mean ± SD 10.76 ± 3.54 mg/l in controls) was inversely associated with islet autoimmunity risk (adjusted OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.92, 0.99] per +1 mg/l), particularly islet autoimmunity, starting with insulin autoantibodies (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.88, 0.99]), but not with type 1 diabetes risk (OR 0.93 [95% Cl 0.86, 1.02]). The SLC2A2 rs5400 SNP was associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes (OR 1.77 [95% CI 1.12, 2.80]), independent of plasma ascorbic acid (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.84, 1.00]). Conclusions/interpretation: Higher plasma ascorbic acid levels may protect against islet autoimmunity in children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Data availability: The datasets generated and analysed during the current study will be made available in the NIDDK Central Repository at https://www.niddkrepository.org/studies/teddy.
  • Niinistö, Sari, et al. (författare)
  • Children's erythrocyte fatty acids are associated with the risk of islet autoimmunity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our aim was to investigate the associations between erythrocyte fatty acids and the risk of islet autoimmunity in children. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young Study (TEDDY) is a longitudinal cohort study of children at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (n = 8676) born between 2004 and 2010 in the U.S., Finland, Sweden, and Germany. A nested case-control design comprised 398 cases with islet autoimmunity and 1178 sero-negative controls matched for clinical site, family history, and gender. Fatty acids composition was measured in erythrocytes collected at the age of 3, 6, and 12 months and then annually up to 6 years of age. Conditional logistic regression models were adjusted for HLA risk genotype, ancestry, and weight z-score. Higher eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid (n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) levels during infancy and conjugated linoleic acid after infancy were associated with a lower risk of islet autoimmunity. Furthermore, higher levels of some even-chain saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were associated with increased risk. Fatty acid status in early life may signal the risk for islet autoimmunity, especially n - 3 fatty acids may be protective, while increased levels of some SFAs and MUFAs may precede islet autoimmunity.
  • Norris, Jill M., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration and risk of islet autoimmunity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 67:1, s. 146-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the association between plasma 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and islet autoimmunity (IA) and whether vitamin D gene polymorphisms modify the effect of 25(OH)D on IA risk. We followed 8,676 children at increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes at six sites in the U.S. and Europe. We defined IA as positivity for at least one autoantibody (GADA, IAA, or IA-2A) on two or more visits. We conducted a risk set sampled nested casecontrol study of 376 IA case subjects and up to 3 control subjects per case subject. 25(OH)D concentrationwas measured on all samples prior to, and including, the first IA positive visit. Nine polymorphisms in VDR, CYP24A, CYP27B1, GC, and RXRA were analyzed as effect modifiers of 25(OH)D. Adjusting for HLA-DR-DQ and ancestry, higher childhood 25(OH)D was associated with lower IA risk (odds ratio = 0.93 for a 5 nmol/L difference; 95% CI 0.89, 0.97). Moreover, this association was modified by VDR rs7975232 (interaction P = 0.0072), where increased childhood 25(OH)D was associated with a decreasing IA risk based upon number of minor alleles: 0 (1.00; 0.93, 1.07), 1 (0.92; 0.89, 0.96), and 2 (0.86; 0.80, 0.92). Vitamin D and VDR may have a combined role in IA development in children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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