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Sökning: WFRF:(Essand Magnus Professor)

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1.
  • Fotaki, Grammatiki, 1988- (författare)
  • Allogeneic dendritic cells as adjuvants in cancer immunotherapy
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In recent years, immunotherapeutic approaches have achieved remarkable successes through checkpoint blockade antibodies, advances in the use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and new insights into the immunosuppressive role of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Through the advances, the role of cancer vaccines based on <em>ex vivo</em> manipulated autologous dendritic cells (DC) has been challenged. The main aim of DC-based vaccination is the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses through presentation of tumor-associated antigens. However, this process has been found to be highly dependent on the ability of the injected vaccine-DCs to activate endogenous bystander DCs.</p><p>In this work, we examined the feasibility of having an allogeneic source of vaccine-DCs (alloDCs), not for direct antigen-presentation to T cells but as an immune primer aiming to activate bystander DCs. In paper I, we treated alloDCs with a T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-promoting maturation cocktail alone or combined with a replication-deficient, infection-enhanced adenoviral vector (Ad5M) as a potential gene delivery vehicle. We found that mature pro-inflammatory alloDCs, either non-transduced or transduced, created a cytokine- and chemokine-enriched milieu <em>in vitro</em>, and promoted the activation of co-cultured immune cells, including cytolytic NK cells, from unrelated donors. The emerged milieu induced the maturation of bystander DCs, which cross-presented antigens from their environment to autologous antigen-specific T cells. In paper II, we found that alloDCs promoted the migration of murine immune cells both to the site of injection and to the draining lymph node. When Ad5M was used for the delivery of the melanoma-associated antigen gp100, we found that gp100-expressing alloDCs were able to control tumor growth through gp100-specific T-cell responses and alteration of the TME. In paper III, we found that co-administration of alloDCs with an adenoviral vector encoding for HPV-antigens is effective in controlling the growth of HPV-related tumors and this may depend on a cross-talk between alloDCs and NK cells which leads to further recruitment of immune cells into the TME. In paper IV, we observed that concomitant targeting of immune checkpoint receptors or co-stimulatory molecules results in synergistic therapeutic effects in a murine colorectal model.</p>
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2.
  • Anagandula, Mahesh (författare)
  • Studies of Enterovirus Infection and Induction of Innate Immunity in Human Pancreatic Cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Several epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated a possible role of Enterovirus (EV) infection in type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, the exact casual mechanism of these viruses in T1D development is not known. The aim of this thesis is to study various EVs that have been shown to differ in their immune phenotype, lytic ability, association with induction of islet autoantibodies, ability to replicate, cause islet disintegration and induce innate antiviral pathways in infected pancreatic cells<em> in vitro</em>. Furthermore, EV presence and pathogenic process in pancreatic tissue and isolated islets of T1D patients was also studied.</p><p>Studies in this thesis for first time show the detection of EV RNA and protein in recent onset live T1D patients supporting the EV hypothesis in T1D development. Further all EV serotypes studied were able to replicate in islets, causing variable amount of islet disintegration ranging from extensive islet disintegration to not affecting islet morphology at all. However, one of the EV serotype replicated in only two out of seven donors infected, highlighting the importance of individual variation between donors. Further, this serotype impaired the insulin response to glucose stimulation without causing any visible islet disintegration, suggesting that this serotype might impaired the insulin response by inducing a functional block. Infection of human islets with the EV serotypes that are differentially associated with the development of islet autoantibodies showed the islet cell disintegration that is comparable with their degree of islet autoantibody seroconversion. Suggesting that the extent of the epidemic-associated islet autoantibody induction may depend on the ability of the viral serotypes to damage islet cells. Furthermore, one of the EV strains showed unique ability to infect and replicate both in endo and exocrine cells of the pancreas. EV replication in both endo and exocrine cells affected the genes involved in innate and antiviral pathways and induction of certain genes with important antiviral activity significantly varied between different donors. Suggesting that the same EV infection could result in different outcome in different individuals. Finally, we compared the results obtained by lytic and non lytic EV strains in vitro with the findings reported in fulminant and slowly progressing autoimmune T1D and found some similarities. In conclusion the results presented in this thesis further support the role of EV in T1D development and provide more insights regarding viral and host variation.  This will improve our understanding of the possible causative mechanism by EV in T1D development.</p>
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3.
  • Forsberg, Ole, 1979- (författare)
  • Generation of Therapeutic T Cells for Prostate Cancer
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The work presented herein focuses on the activation of the adaptive immune system in order to develop T cell-based immunotherapy for viral infections and cancer. The main goal was to identify and activate viral or tumoral antigen-specific T cells by using different identification, isolation and stimulation techniques. One such approach was that we modified dendritic cells (DCs) with an adenoviral vector encoding the full length pp65 antigen from cytomegalovirus (CMV). Through strategic modification techniques we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain DCs presenting antigen-specific peptides both on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II molecules for simultaneous CD8<sup>+</sup> and CD4<sup>+</sup> T cell activation. We also demonstrate that it is possible to generate prostate antigen-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells from a naïve repertoire of T cells by using DCs and HLA-A2-restricted peptides derived from prostate tumor-associated antigens or by using an adenoviral vector encoding the full length prostate tumor-associated antigen STEAP. We further demonstrate that CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells directed against several prostate-specific peptide epitopes can be found in peripheral blood and in the prostate tumor area of prostate cancer patients. Furthermore, we have characterized a number of prostate-derived cell lines in terms of HLA haplotype and tumor-association antigen expression. We concluded that our methods for generating T cells restricted to CMV antigen have the ability to be applied for adoptive T cell transfer to patients with CMV disease and that prostate antigen-specific T cells can be found within prostate cancer patients, which enables future development of immunotherapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.</p>
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4.
  • Carlsson, Björn, 1975- (författare)
  • Adoptive T Cell Therapy of Viral Infection and Cancer Ex vivo Expansion of Cytomegalovirus- and Prostate Antigen-specific T Cells
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The main focus of my thesis has been to develop protocols for generating antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and T helper cells (T<sub>H</sub>) for adoptive transfer to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease and prostate cancer. CMV viremia is a severe complication in immunocompromised stem cell transplanted patients. Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death for men in Western countries. Although different in nature, CMV-infected cells and prostate cancer cells can both be eliminated through specific activation of the adaptive immune system. </p><p>To generate CMV pp65-specific T cells, I utilized dendritic cells (DCs) modified with an HLA-A*0201/pp65<sub>495-503</sub> peptide, a recombinant adenovirus coding for pp65, <i>in vitro</i> transcribed pp65 mRNA and a recombinant pp65 protein. Peptide stimulation yielded large numbers of peptide-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells with high lytic activity while adenovirus or mRNA stimulation resulted in the expansion of CTLs against multiple pp65 epitopes. The recombinant protein activated primarily CD4<sup>+</sup> T<sub>H</sub> cells. Stimulation with DCs co-modified with pp65 mRNA and pp65 protein simultaneously generated both pp65-specific CTLs and T<sub>H</sub> cells. Such T cells would cover all pp65 epitopes while avoiding potential virus related biohazards. The mRNA/protein combinatory approach can be used to stimulate T cells <i>ex vivo</i> from virtually all stem cell donors for adoptive T cell transfer. </p><p>I have identified two immunogenic HLA-A*0201-restricted peptide epitopes from the prostate tissue antigen TARP. Repeated stimulations with TARP peptide-pulsed DCs yielded up to 20% TARP-directed CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells even when starting from undetectable frequencies (&lt;0.01%). The T cells could be sorted to 99% purity and expanded 1000-fold with retained specificity and activity. We also detected TARP-directed CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells in the blood of prostate cancer patients. Therefore, TARP seems to have potential as antigen in DC vaccination or adoptive T cell therapy of prostate cancer. </p>
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5.
  • Hillerdal, Victoria (författare)
  • The Multiple Faces of Genetically-Modified T Cells <em>Potential Applications in Therapy</em>
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In this PhD thesis the potential of T-cells as therapy for disease are explored. The applications of genetically modified T-cells for treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease; the functionality and optimal activation of T-cells are discussed.</p><p>Successful treatment of cancer with T-cell receptor (TCR)-modified T-cells was first reported in 2006, and is based on recognition of a specific peptide by the TCR in the context of the MHC molecule. As antigen presentation in tumors is often defective and to avoid MHC-restriction, chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) molecules containing an antibody part for recognition of cell surface antigens and TCR and co-receptor signaling domains have been developed. Activated T-cells mount an efficient immune response resulting in the killing of the cancer cell and initiating T-cell proliferation. The rationale for using genetically modified T-cells instead of isolating tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from the tumor and expanding them (TIL therapy) is that it is often very difficult to obtain viable lymphocytes that are able to expand enough in order to use them for therapy.</p><p>This thesis explores the possibility of using prostate-specific antigens to target T-cells towards prostate cancer. The prostate has many unique tissue antigens but most patients with metastatic prostate cancer have undergone prostatectomy and consequently have “prostate antigen” expression only in cancer cells. We targeted the prostate antigens TARP and PSCA with a HLA-A2 restricted TCR and a CAR respectively. In both cases the tumor-specific T-cells were able to generate potent proliferative and cytotoxic responses <em>in vitro</em>. The PSCA CAR-modified T-cells delayed subcutaneous tumor growth <em>in vivo</em>. It is evident from our <em>in vivo</em> experiments that the PSCA CAR T-cells were unable to completely cure the mice. Therefore, we aimed to improve the quality of the transferred T-cells and their resistance to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Stimulation with allogeneic lymphocyte-licensed DCs improved the resistance to oxidative stress and antitumor activity of the T-cells.</p><p>We further investigated the potential of genetically modified regulatory T-cells (Tregs) to suppress effector cells in an antigen-specific manner. Using a strong TCR we hypothesize that the phenotype of the TCR-transduced Tregs may be affected by antigen activation of those cells. We found that the engineered Tregs produced cytokines consistent with Th1, Th2 and Treg phenotypes.</p>
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6.
  • Ninalga, Christina, 1976- (författare)
  • Cancer Immunotherapy A Preclinical Study of Urinary Bladder Cancer
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), or attenuated Mycobacterium bovis, is the gold standard of immunotherapy in the clinic to treat superficial bladder cancer. However, setbacks remain due to a high recurrence rate, side effects, and BCG-refractory disease. In this thesis, we explored the use of novel immunotherapeutic agents such as CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) or synthetic ODNs containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides. Since unmethylated CpG motifs are predominant in bacterial but not vertebrate DNA, they function as a “danger signal” leading to a potent immune response.</p><p>To be able to test various immunotherapeutic agents, we optimized subcutaneous (s.c.), metastatic, and orthotopic models using the murine bladder-49 (MB49) cancer cell line. In the orthotopic model, we show that poly-L-lysine promotes MB49 attachment to the bladder leading to 100% tumor take. In addition, Clorpactin (sodium oxychlorosene) potently enhances adenoviral transduction in the bladder.</p><p>Utilizing the MB49 model, we compare CpG ODNs with BCG and demonstrate the increased efficacy of CpG ODNs which could cure both s.c. and aggressive orthotopic bladder cancer. In our model, type B ODNs were most optimal and the antitumor response required T cells in order to induce regression and tumor-specific immunity. We also combined CpG ODNs with adenoviral vectors (Ad) expressing the immunostimulatory molecules CD40L, TRANCE, lymphotactin, IL2 or IL15. However, we show that CpG ODNs are effective as a monotherapy and adenoviral vectors did not enhance the effect.</p><p>AdCD40L was also used to genetically modify human dendritic cells (DCs). AdCD40L-transduced DCs not only had a higher and prolonged expression of the Th1 cytokine IL12 compared to TNFα-matured DCs, but CD40L-activated DCs could also resist the suppressive effects of IL10 and TGFβ. Since TNFα is commonly used in clinical DC vaccination protocols and because tumors often secrete immunosuppressive cytokines, these data have important implications for optimizing cancer immunotherapy.</p>
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7.
  • Ramachandran, Mohanraj (författare)
  • Cancer Immunotherapy Evolving Oncolytic viruses and CAR T-cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In the last decade cancer immunotherapy has taken huge strides forward from bench to bedside and being approved as drugs. Cancer immunotherapy harnesses the power of patient’s own immune system to fight cancer. Approaches are diverse and include antibodies, therapeutic vaccines, adoptively transferred T-cells, immune checkpoint inhibitors, oncolytic viruses and immune cell activators such as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Excellent clinical responses have been observed for certain cancers with checkpoint antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T-cells. It is however becoming evident that strategies need to be combined for broader effective treatment responses because cancers evolve to escape immune recognition. A conditionally replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (Ad5PTDf35-[Δ24]) was engineered to secrete <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> Neutrophil Activating Protein (HP-NAP, a TLR-2 agonist) to combine viral oncolysis and immune stimulation. Treatment with Ad5PTDf35-[Δ24-sNAP] improved survival of mice bearing human neuroendocrine tumors (BON). Expression of HP-NAP in the tumor microenvironment promoted neutrophil infiltration, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and increased necrosis. We further studied the ability of HP-NAP to activate dendritic cells (DCs) a key player in priming T-cell responses. HP-NAP phenotypically matured and activated DCs to secrete the T-helper type-1 (Th-1) polarizing cytokine IL-12. HP-NAP-matured DCs were functional; able to migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. CAR T-cells were engineered to secrete HP-NAP upon T-cell activation. Secreted HP-NAP was able to mature DCs, leading to a reciprocal effect on the CAR T-cells with improved cytotoxicity <em>in vitro</em>. Semliki Forest virus (SFV), an oncolytic virus with natural neuro-tropism was tagged with central nervous system (CNS)-specific microRNA target sequences for miR124, miR125 and miR134 to selectively attenuate virus replication in healthy CNS cells. Systemic infection of mice with the SFV4miRT did not cause encephalitis, while it retained its ability to replicate in tumor cells and cure a big proportion of mice bearing syngeneic neuroblastoma and gliomas. Therapeutic efficacy of SFV4miRT inversely correlated with type-I antiviral interferon response (IFN-β) mounted by tumor cells. In summary, combining immunotherapeutic strategies with HP-NAP is a promising approach to combat cancers and SFV4miRT is an excellent candidate for treatment of neuroblastomas and gliomas.</p>
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8.
  • Yu, Di, 1985- (författare)
  • Adenovirus for Cancer Therapy <em>With a Focus on its Surface Modification</em>
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is widely used as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy. However, its infectivity is highly dependent on the expression level of coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) on the surface of tumor cells. We engineered Ad5 virus with the protein transduction domain (PTD) from the HIV-1 Tat protein (Tat-PTD) inserted in the hypervariable region 5 (HVR5) of the hexon protein in the virus capsid. Tat-PTD-modified Ad5 shows a dramatically increased transduction level of CAR-negative cells and bypassed fiber-mediated transduction. It also overcomes the fiber-masking problem, which is caused by release of excess fiber proteins from infected cells. To achieve specific viral replication in neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumor cells, we identified the secretogranin III (SCG3) promoter and constructed an adenovirus Ad5PTD(ASH1-SCG3-E1A) wherein E1A gene expression is controlled by the SCG3 promoter and the achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASH1) enhancer. This virus shows selective and efficient killing of neuroblastoma cell lines <em>in vitro,</em> and delays human neuroblastoma xenograft tumor growth on nude mice. To further enhance the viral oncolytic efficacy, we also switched the fiber 5 to fiber 35 to generate Ad5PTDf35. This vector shows dramatically increased transduction capacity of primary human cell cultures including hematopoietic cells and their derivatives, pancreatic islets and exocrine cells, mesenchymal stem cells and primary tumor cells including primary cancer initiating cells. Ad5PTDf35-based adenovirus could be a useful platform for gene delivery and oncolytic virus development. Viral oncolysis alone cannot completely eradicate tumors. Therefore, we further armed the Ad5PTDf35-D24 virus with a secreted form of <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> Neutrophil Activating Protein (HP-NAP). Expression of HP-NAP recruits neutrophils to the site of infection, activates an innate immune response against tumor cells and provokes a Th1-type adaptive immune response. Established tumor on nude mice could be completely eradicated in some cases after treatment with this virus and the survival of mice was significantly prolonged.</p>
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9.
  • Cheng, Wing-Shing, 1974- (författare)
  • TARP Promoter-Based Prostate Cancer Gene Therapy From Development to Application
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Prostate cancer is one leading cause of cancer-related death among men in Western countries. The standard therapies for localized prostate cancer include radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. Such measures are relatively effective in the short term, but many patients ultimately relapse. These patients may benefit from a combination of standard therapy and oncolytic virus therapy. My work aimed to develop viruses for this purpose.</p><p>TARP is a protein that in males is specifically expressed in prostate epithelial and cancer cells. In my thesis, I characterized the TARP promoter and showed that TARP expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by testosterone through binding of the androgen receptor in the proximal TARP promoter. I further developed TARP promoter-based regulatory sequences for prostate-specific gene expression. A sequence comprising a PSA enhancer, a PSMA enhancer and the TARP promoter was constructed and designated PPT. An adenoviral vector containing the PPT sequence shielded from transcriptional interference by an H19 insulator showed high prostate-specific transcriptional activity in human cells both in the presence and absence of testosterone. However, in experimental murine prostate cancer the PPT sequence is not active. Therefore, a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system was used together with the PPT sequence to develop an adenovirus that confers prostate-specific transgene expression also in murine cells.</p><p>I constructed a conditionally replicating adenovirus where the E1A gene expression is controlled by an H19 insulator-shielded PPT regulatory sequence, Ad[I/PPT-E1A]. This virus exhibited absolute prostate specificity in terms of E1A expression, viral replication and cytolysis <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Importantly, our virus is active both in the presence and absence of testosterone, which may prove beneficial for patients treated by hormonal withdrawal. </p><p>Hopefully, my work will improve existing gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer and in the long term improve the prognosis for patients with prostate cancer.</p>
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10.
  • Jin, Chuan, 1986- (författare)
  • Improvement of adoptive T-cell therapy for Cancer
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Cancer immunotherapy has recently made remarkable clinical progress. Adoptive transfer of T-cells engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) against CD19 has been successful in treatment of B-cell leukemia. Patient’s T-cells are isolated, activated, transduced with a vector encoding the CAR molecule and then expanded before being transferred back to the patient. However some obstacles restrict its success in solid tumors. This thesis explores different aspects to improve CAR T-cells therapy of cancer.</p><p><em>Ex vivo</em> expanded T-cells are usually sensitive to the harsh tumor microenvironment after reinfusion. We developed a novel expansion method for T-cells, named AEP, by using irradiated and preactivated allo-sensitized allogeneic lymphocytes (ASALs) and allogeneic mature dendritic cells (DCs). AEP-expanded T-cells exhibited better survival and cytotoxic efficacy under oxidative and immunosuppressive stress, compared to T-cells expanded with established procedures.</p><p>Integrating retro/lentivirus (RV/LV) used for CAR expressions randomly integrate in the T-cell genome and has the potential risk of causing insertional mutagenesis. We developed a non-integrating lentiviral (NILV) vector containing a scaffold matrix attachment region (S/MAR) element (NILV-S/MAR) for T-cells transduction. NILV-S/MAR-engineered CAR T-cells display similar cytotoxicity to LV-engineered CAR T-cells with undetectable level of insertional event, which makes them safer than CAR T-cells used in the clinic today.</p><p>CD19-CAR T-cells have so far been successful for B-cell leukemia but less successful for B-cell lymphomas, which present semi-solid structure with an immunosuppressive microenvironment. We have developed CAR T-cells armed with <em>H. pylori</em>neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP). HP-NAP is a major virulence factor and plays important role in T-helper type 1 (Th1) polarizing. NAP-CAR T-cells showed the ability to mature DCs, attract innate immune cells and increase secretion of Th1 cytokines and chemokines, which presumably leads to better CAR T-cell therapy for B-cell lymphoma.</p><p>Allogeneic-DCs (alloDCs) were used to further alter tumor microenvironment. The premise relies on initiation of an allo-reactive immune response for cytokine and chemokines secretion, as well as stimulation of T-cell response by bringing in tumor-associated antigen. We demonstrated that alloDCs promote migration and activation of immune cells and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice by attracting T-cells to tumors and reverse the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment.</p>
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