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Sökning: WFRF:(Esteva Magdalena)

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1.
  • Harris, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • How European primary care practitioners think the timeliness of cancer diagnosis can be improved : a thematic analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 9:9, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background National European cancer survival rates vary widely. Prolonged diagnostic intervals are thought to be a key factor in explaining these variations. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) frequently play a crucial role during initial cancer diagnosis; their knowledge could be used to improve the planning of more effective approaches to earlier cancer diagnosis. Objectives This study sought the views of PCPs from across Europe on how they thought the timeliness of cancer diagnosis could be improved. Design In an online survey, a final open-ended question asked PCPs how they thought the speed of diagnosis of cancer in primary care could be improved. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting A primary care study, with participating centres in 20 European countries. Participants A total of 1352 PCPs answered the final survey question, with a median of 48 per country. Results The main themes identified were: patient-related factors, including health education; care provider-related factors, including continuing medical education; improving communication and interprofessional partnership, particularly between primary and secondary care; factors relating to health system organisation and policies, including improving access to healthcare; easier primary care access to diagnostic tests; and use of information technology. Re-allocation of funding to support timely diagnosis was seen as an issue affecting all of these. Conclusions To achieve more timely cancer diagnosis, health systems need to facilitate earlier patient presentation through education and better access to care, have well-educated clinicians with good access to investigations and better information technology, and adequate primary care cancer diagnostic pathway funding.
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2.
  • Harris, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates : a European survey using vignettes.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0281-3432 .- 1502-7724. ; 35:1, s. 27-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates.DESIGN: Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates.SETTING: A total of 14 countries.SUBJECTS: Consensus groups of PCPs.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes.RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62).CONCLUSIONS: There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to which PCPs act as gatekeepers varies considerably from country to country. There is no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial presentation to a PCP and poorer cancer survival.
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3.
  • Harris, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying important health system factors that influence primary care practitioners' referrals for cancer suspicion : a European cross-sectional survey.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 8:9, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Cancer survival and stage of disease at diagnosis and treatment vary widely across Europe. These differences may be partly due to variations in access to investigations and specialists. However, evidence to explain how different national health systems influence primary care practitioners' (PCPs') referral decisions is lacking.This study analyses health system factors potentially influencing PCPs' referral decision-making when consulting with patients who may have cancer, and how these vary between European countries.DESIGN: Based on a content-validity consensus, a list of 45 items relating to a PCP's decisions to refer patients with potential cancer symptoms for further investigation was reduced to 20 items. An online questionnaire with the 20 items was answered by PCPs on a five-point Likert scale, indicating how much each item affected their own decision-making in patients that could have cancer. An exploratory factor analysis identified the factors underlying PCPs' referral decision-making.SETTING: A primary care study; 25 participating centres in 20 European countries.PARTICIPANTS: 1830 PCPs completed the survey. The median response rate for participating centres was 20.7%.OUTCOME MEASURES: The factors derived from items related to PCPs' referral decision-making. Mean factor scores were produced for each country, allowing comparisons.RESULTS: Factor analysis identified five underlying factors: PCPs' ability to refer; degree of direct patient access to secondary care; PCPs' perceptions of being under pressure; expectations of PCPs' role; and extent to which PCPs believe that quality comes before cost in their health systems. These accounted for 47.4% of the observed variance between individual responses.CONCLUSIONS: Five healthcare system factors influencing PCPs' referral decision-making in 20 European countries were identified. The factors varied considerably between European countries. Knowledge of these factors could assist development of health service policies to produce better cancer outcomes, and inform future research to compare national cancer diagnostic pathways and outcomes.
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4.
  • Murchie, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Influences of rurality on action to diagnose cancer by primary care practitioners : Results from a Europe-wide survey in 20 countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - : Elsevier. - 1877-7821 .- 1877-783X. ; 65, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rural-dwellers have poorer cancer outcomes than urban counterparts, for reasons which are unclear. At healthcare institution level, poorer access to investigations and different clinical decision-making by rural primary healthcare practitioners (PCPs) could be important. Aim: To compare access to investigations, attitudes to cancer diagnosis and clinical decision-making between rural and urban PCPs. Setting: A vignette-based cross-sectional survey of rural and urban PCPs in 20 European countries. Methods: Data on PCPs' decision-making and attitudes to cancer diagnosis were based on clinical scenarios. Comparisons were made using tests of proportion, univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression. Results: Of the 1779 PCPs completing the survey 541 30.4 %) practiced rurally. Rural PCPs had significantly less direct access to all investigative modalities: ultrasound; endoscopy; x-ray and advanced screening (all p<0.001). Rural PCPs were as likely as urban PCPs to take diagnostic action (investigation and/or referral) at the index consultation in all four clinical vignettes ((OR, 95 % CI) for lung: 0.90, 0.72-1.12; ovarian: 0.95, 0.75-1.19; breast: 0.87, 0.69-1.09; colorectal: 0.98, 0.75-1.30). Rural PCPs were less likely to refer to a specialist at the index consultation for ovarian cancer (OR 0.71 95 % CI 0.51-0.99). Rural PCPs were significantly more likely to report that their patients faced barriers to accessing specialist care, but practitioners did not report greater difficulties making specialist referral than their urban counterparts Conclusions: European rural PCPs report poorer access to investigations but are at least as likely as urban PCPs to investigate or refer patients that might have cancer at the index consultation.
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