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1.
  • Bixby, Honor, et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
2.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the W boson mass with the D0 detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 89:1, s. 012005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We give a detailed description of the measurement of the W boson mass, M-W, performed on an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb(-1), which is based on similar techniques as used for our previous measurement done on an independent data set of 1 fb(-1) of data. The data were collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. This data set yields 1.68 x 10(6) W -> ev candidate events. We measure the mass using the transverse mass, electron transverse momentum, and missing transverse energy distributions. The M-W measurements using the transverse mass and the electron transverse momentum distributions are the most precise of these three and are combined to give M-W 80.367 +/- 0.013 (stat) +/- 0.022(syst) GeV = 80: 367 +/- 0.026 GeV. When combined with our earlier measurement on 1 fb(-1) of data, we obtain M-W = 80.375 +/- 0.023 GeV.
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3.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Centrality Dependence of the Charged-Particle Multiplicity Density at Midrapidity in Pb-Pb Collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 106:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2: 76 TeV is presented. The charged-particle density normalized per participating nucleon pair increases by about a factor of 2 from peripheral (70%-80%) to central (0%-5%) collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be similar to that observed at lower collision energies. The data are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production in nuclear collisions.
4.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Femtoscopy of pp collisions at root s=0.9 and 7 TeV at the LHC with two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 84:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the high statistics two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at root s = 0.9 TeV and root s = 7 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The correlation functions as well as the extracted source radii scale with event multiplicity and pair momentum. When analyzed in the same multiplicity and pair transverse momentum range, the correlation is similar at the two collision energies. A three-dimensional femtoscopic analysis shows an increase of the emission zone with increasing event multiplicity as well as decreasing homogeneity lengths with increasing transverse momentum. The latter trend gets more pronounced as multiplicity increases. This suggests the development of space-momentum correlations, at least for collisions producing a high multiplicity of particles. We consider these trends in the context of previous femtoscopic studies in high-energy hadron and heavy-ion collisions and discuss possible underlying physics mechanisms. Detailed analysis of the correlation reveals an exponential shape in the outward and longitudinal directions, while the sideward remains a Gaussian. This is interpreted as a result of a significant contribution of strongly decaying resonances to the emission region shape. Significant nonfemtoscopic correlations are observed, and are argued to be the consequence of "mini-jet"-like structures extending to low p(t). They are well reproduced by the Monte-Carlo generators and seen also in pi(+)pi(-) correlations.
5.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Higher Harmonic Anisotropic Flow Measurements of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 107:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the first measurement of the triangular nu(3), quadrangular nu(4), and pentagonal nu(5) charged particle flow in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We show that the triangular flow can be described in terms of the initial spatial anisotropy and its fluctuations, which provides strong constraints on its origin. In the most central events, where the elliptic flow nu(2) and nu(3) have similar magnitude, a double peaked structure in the two-particle azimuthal correlations is observed, which is often interpreted as a Mach cone response to fast partons. We show that this structure can be naturally explained from the measured anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients.
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6.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S=2.76 TeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 696:4, s. 328-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first measurement of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 2.76 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We observe a growing trend with energy now not only for the longitudinal and the outward but also for the sideward pion source radius. The pion homogeneity volume and the decoupling time are significantly larger than those measured at RHIC. (C) 2010 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
7.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for production of single top quarks
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998. ; 78:1, s. 012005
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p (p) over bar collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb(-1) data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W + jets and t (t) over bar events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of sigma(p (p) over bar -> tb + X, tqb + X) = 4.7 +/- 1.3 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find vertical bar V(tb)f(1)(L)vertical bar = 1.31(-0.21)(+0.25), where f(1)(L) is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68 <= 1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.
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8.
  • Abazov, V.M., et al. (författare)
  • First study of the radiation-amplitude zero in W gamma production and limits on anomalous WW gamma couplings at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 100:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results from a study of p (p) over bar -> W gamma+X events utilizing data corresponding to 0.7 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity at root s = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set limits on anomalous WW gamma couplings at the 95% C.L. The one-dimensional 95% C.L. limits are 0.49 <kappa(gamma)< 1.51 and -0.12 <lambda(gamma)< 0.13. We make the first study of the charge-signed rapidity difference between the lepton and the photon and find it to be indicative of the standard model radiation-amplitude zero in the W gamma system.
  •  
9.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the differential cross section for the production of an isolated photon with associated jet in p(p)over-bar collisions at root s=1.96 TeV
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters B. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 666:5, s. 435-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The process p (p) over bar -> gamma + jet + X is studied using 1.0 fb(-1) of data collected by the DO detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p (p) over bar collider at a center-of-mass energy root s = 1.96 TeV. Photons are reconstructed in the central rapidity region vertical bar y(gamma)vertical bar < 1.0 with transverse momenta in the range 30 < p(T)(gamma) < 400 GeV while jets are reconstructed in either the central vertical bar y(jet)vertical bar < 0.8 or forward 1.5 < vertical bar y(jet)vertical bar < 2.5 rapidity intervals with P-T(jet) > 15 GeV. The differential cross section d(3 sigma)/dp(T)(gamma) dy(gamma) dy(jet) is measured as a function of p(T)(gamma) in four regions, differing by the relative orientations of the photon and the jet in rapidity. Ratios between the differential cross sections in each region are also presented. Next-to-leading order QCD predictions using different parameterizations of parton distribution functions and theoretical scale choices are compared to the data. The predictions do not simultaneously describe the measured normalization and p(T)(gamma) dependence of the cross section in the four measured regions.
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10.
  • Abazov, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Direct CP-violating Charge Asymmetry in D-s(+/-) -> Phi pi(+/-) Decays
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 112:11, s. 111804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the direct CP-violating charge asymmetry in D-s(+) -> phi pi(+/-) decays where the phi meson decays to K+ K-, using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb(-1) of proton- antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The normalized difference A(CP) in the yield of D-s(+) and D-s(-) mesons in these decays is measured by fitting the difference between their reconstructed invariant mass distributions. This results in an asymmetry of A(CP) = [-0.38 +/- 0.27]%, which is the most precise measurement of this quantity to date. The result is consistent with the standard model prediction of zero CP asymmetry in this decay.
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