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1.
  • Clendenen, Tess, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants in Hormone-Related Genes and Risk of Breast Cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - SAN FRANCISCO : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex hormones play a key role in the development of breast cancer. Certain polymorphic variants (SNPs and repeat polymorphisms) in hormone-related genes are associated with sex hormone levels. However, the relationship observed between these genetic variants and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent. We conducted a case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts to assess the relationship between specific genetic variants in hormone-related genes and breast cancer risk. In total, 1164 cases and 2111 individually-matched controls were included in the study. We did not observe an association between potential functional genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen pathway, SHBG rs6259, ESR1 rs2234693, CYP19 rs10046 and rs4775936, and UGT1A1 rs8175347, or the progesterone pathway, PGR rs1042838, with the risk of breast cancer. Our results suggest that these genetic variants do not have a strong effect on breast cancer risk.
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2.
  • Couch, Fergus J., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of four novel susceptibility loci for oestrogen receptor negative breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7:11375, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 x 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for similar to 11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
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3.
  • Försti, Asta, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor beta 1 pathway in relation to colorectal cancer progression
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - New York : Liss. - 1045-2257 .- 1098-2264. ; 49:3, s. 270-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFB1) acts as a growth inhibitor of normal colonic epithelial cells, however, as a tumor promoter of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. To explore the association between genetic polymorphisms in the TGFB1 pathway and CRC susceptibility and clinical outcome, we carried out a case-control study on a Swedish population of 308 CRC cases and 585 age- and gender-matched controls. The cases were sampled prospectively and had up to 16 years follow-up, making the study material particularly suitable for survival analysis. On the basis of their reported or predicted functional effect, nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (TGFB1: Leu10Pro; TGFBR1: 9A/6A and IVS7G+24A; FURIN: C-229T; THBS1: T+42C; LTBP1L: C-256G; LTBP4: T-893G and Thr750Ala; BAMBI: T-779A) were selected for genotyping. We evaluated the associations between genotypes and CRC and Dukes' stage. Survival probabilities were compared between different subgroups. The observed statistically significant associations included a decreased CRC risk for TGFBR1 IVS7G+24A minor allele carriers (odds ratio (OR): 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.97), less aggressive tumors with Dukes' stage A+B for carriers of LTBP4 Thr750Ala and BAMBI T-779A minor alleles (OR: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.36-0.93 and OR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29-0.89, respectively) and worse survival for FURIN C-229T heterozygotes (hazard ratio: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.08-2.46). As this is the first study about the influence of the polymorphisms in the TGFB1 pathway on CRC progression, further studies in large independent cohorts are warranted.
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5.
  • Harlid, Sophia, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effect of low-penetrant SNPs on breast cancer risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 106:2, s. 389-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although many low-penetrant genetic risk factors for breast cancer have been discovered, knowledge about the effect of multiple risk alleles is limited, especially in women <50 years. We therefore investigated the association between multiple risk alleles and breast cancer risk as well as individual effects according to age-approximated pre- and post-menopausal status.METHODS: Ten previously described breast cancer-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed in a joint European biobank-based study comprising 3584 breast cancer cases and 5063 cancer-free controls. Genotyping was performed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression.RESULTS: Significant associations with breast cancer were confirmed for 7 of the 10 SNPs. Analysis of the joint effect of the original 10 as well as the statistically significant 7 SNPs (rs2981582, rs3803662, rs889312, rs13387042, rs13281615, rs3817198 and rs981782) found a highly significant trend for increasing breast cancer risk with increasing number of risk alleles (P-trend 5.6 x 10(-20) and 1.5 x 10(-25), respectively). Odds ratio for breast cancer of 1.84 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-2.14; 10 SNPs) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.80-2.50; 7 SNPs) was seen for the maximum vs the minimum number of risk alleles. Additionally, one of the examined SNPs (rs981782 in HCN1) had a protective effect that was significantly stronger in premenopausal women (P-value: 7.9 x 10(-4)).CONCLUSION: The strongly increasing risk seen when combining many low-penetrant risk alleles supports the polygenic inheritance model of breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer (2012) 106, 389-396. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.461 www.bjcancer.com Published online 1 November 2011 (C) 2012 Cancer Research UK
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6.
  • Ji, Jianguang, et al. (författare)
  • Survival in ovarian cancer patients by histology and family history
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 47:6, s. 1133-1139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction. Earlier studies suggest that histology has no prognostic significance in patients with invasive ovarian tumors. Studies about the effect of family history on survival have given conflicting results, which we try to clarify in this study. As an additional question, we examined whether family members share survival experience. Methods. We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cause-specific and overall survival in ovarian cancer patients by histology and family history. HRs show the probability of death in the study group compared to the reference group. Results. A total of 6 049 ovarian cancer patients with specific histologies were retrieved from our Database from years 1993 to 1999. Compared to women with epithelial ovarian cancer, women with borderline epithelial tumors had the best survival (HR 0.02 and 0.14 for cause-specific and overall survival). Good survival was also noted for patients with sex cord-stromal tumors and germ cell tumors. Among specific subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers, good survival was noted for women with clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. The study covered 80 mother-daughter pairs with a family history. Patients with a family history had a poorer survival than sporadic cases in both maternal and offspring generations. When the survival was analyzed according to the probands' length of survival, there was a non-significant concordance of prognosis. Conclusion. Our data showed that histology and family history are prognostic factors for ovarian tumors. Patients with a family history had a more aggressive course than the sporadic cases.
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7.
  • Lundin, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Selected polymorphisms in sex hormone-related genes, circulating sex hormones and risk of endometrial cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - : Elsevier. - 1877-7821 .- 1877-783X. ; 36:5, s. 445-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The role of estrogen and progesterone in the development of endometrial cancer is well documented. Few studies have examined the association of genetic variants in sex hormone-related genes with endometrial cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within three cohorts to examine the association of endometrial cancer risk with polymorphisms in hormone-related genes among 391 cases (92% postmenopausal at diagnosis) and 712 individually-matched controls. We also examined the association of these polymorphisms with circulating levels of sex hormones and SHBG in a cross-sectional analysis including 596 healthy postmenopausal women at blood donation (controls from this nested case-control study and from a nested case-control study of breast cancer in one of the three cohorts). Results: Adjusting for endometrial cancer risk factors, the A allele of rs4775936 in CYP19 was significantly associated (ORper allele = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01-1.47, p(trend) = 0.04), while the T allele of rs10046 was marginally associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (ORper allele = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99-1.45, p(trend) = 0.06). PGR rs1042838 was also marginally associated with risk (ORper allele = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.96-1.61, p(trend) = 0.09). No significant association was found for the other polymorphisms, i.e. CYP1B1 rs1800440 and rs1056836, UGT1A1 rs8175347, SHBG rs6259 and ESR1 rs2234693. Rs8175347 was significantly associated with postmenopausal levels of estradiol, free estradiol and estrone and rs6259 with SHBG and estradiol. Conclusion: Our findings support an association between genetic variants in CYP19, and possibly PGR, and risk of endometrial cancer. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Merlo, Domenico Franco, et al. (författare)
  • Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. - : National Institute of Environmental Health Science. - 1552-9924 .- 0091-6765. ; 122:2, s. 193-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, -suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. Methods: DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. Results: Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M(1)dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure-outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M(1)dG-DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX (R) (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ER alpha CALUX (R) (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX (R) (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/ 2 and CYP2E1 were associated with MNBN. Conclusion: We measured in utero exposure to selected environmental carcinogens and circulating hormonally acting factors and detected associations with MN frequency in newborns circulating T lymphocytes. The results highlight mechanisms that may contribute to carcinogen-induced leukemia and require further research.
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9.
  • Shi, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic impact of polymorphisms in the MYBL2 interacting genes in breast cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - : Springer. - 1573-7217 .- 0167-6806. ; 131:3, s. 1039-1047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MYBL2 is a transcription factor, which regulates the expression of genes involved in cancer progression. In this study, we investigated whether putative functional variants in genes regulating MYBL2 (E2F1, E2F3 and E2F4) or in genes, which are regulated by MYBL2 (BCL2, BIRC5, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL5A2, ERBB2, CLU, LIN9 and TOP2A) affect breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and clinical outcome. Twenty-eight SNPs were genotyped in a population-based series of 782 Swedish BC cases and 1,559 matched controls. BC-specific survival analysis of BIRC5 suggested that carriers of the minor allele of rs8073069 and rs1042489 have a worse survival compared with the major homozygotes (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.39-4.36 and HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.25, respectively). The poor survival was observed especially in women with aggressive tumours. Multivariate analysis supported the role of rs8073069 as an independent prognostic marker. For BCL2, minor allele carriers of rs1564483 were more likely to have hormone receptor-positive tumours than the major homozygotes. Another SNP in BCL2, rs4987852, was associated with tumour stages II-IV and histologic grade 3. In CLU, the minor allele carriers of rs9331888 were more likely to have tumours with regional lymph node metastasis and stages II-IV than the major homozygotes. In conclusion, our study suggests a role of genetic variation in BIRC5, BCL2 and CLU as progression and prognostic markers for BC, supporting previous studies based on the expression of the genes.
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10.
  • Shi, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 20q13 amplicon genes in relation to breast cancer risk and clinical outcome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - New York : Springer. - 1573-7217 .- 0167-6806. ; 130:3, s. 905-916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 20q13 region is frequently amplified/overexpressed in breast tumours. However, the nature of this amplification/overexpression is unknown. Here, we investigated genetic variation in five 20q13 amplicon genes (MYBL2, AURKA, ZNF217, STK4 and PTPN1) and its impact on breast cancer (BC) susceptibility and clinical outcome. As a novel finding, four polymorphisms in STK4 (rs6017452, rs7271519) and AURKA (rs2273535, rs8173) associated with steroid hormone receptor status both in a Swedish population-based cohort of 783 BC cases and in a Polish familial/early onset cohort of 506 BC cases. In the joint analysis, the minor allele carriers of rs6017452 had more often hormone receptor positive tumours (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.81), while homozygotes for the minor allele of rs7271519, rs2273535 and rs8173 had more often hormone receptor negative tumours (2.26, 1.30-3.39; 2.39, 1.14-5.01; 2.39, 1.19-4.80, respectively) than homozygotes for the common allele. BC-specific survival analysis of AURKA suggested that the Swedish carriers of the minor allele of rs16979877, rs2273535 and rs8173 might have a worse survival compared with the major homozygotes. The survival probabilities associated with the AURKA genotypes depended on the tumour phenotype. In the Swedish case-control study, associations with BC susceptibility were observed in a dominant model for three MYBL2 promoter polymorphisms (rs619289, P = 0.02; rs826943, P = 0.03 and rs826944, P = 0.02), two AURKA promoter polymorphisms (rs6064389, P = 0.04 and rs16979877, P = 0.02) and one 3'UTR polymorphism in ZNF217 (rs1056948, P = 0.01). In conclusion, our data confirmed the impact of the previously identified susceptibility locus and provided preliminary evidence for novel susceptibility variants in BC. We provided evidence for the first time that genetic variants at 20q13 may affect hormone receptor status in breast tumours and influence tumour aggressiveness and survival of the patients. Future studies are needed to confirm the prognostic value of our findings in the clinic.
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