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1.
  • Chee, Derserri Yan-Ting, et al. (författare)
  • Viewpoints on driving of individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation. - 1751-8423. ; 18:1, s. 26-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Understanding the viewpoints of drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is crucial in the development of mobility support and driver training that is responsive to their needs. Methods: Fifty young adults with ASD and fifty seven typically developed adults participated in the study to form a contrasting group. Q-methodology was used to understand viewpoints on driving as a main mode of transportation. Data were analysed using a PQ by-person varimax rotation factor analysis. Results: Although some ASD participants perceived themselves as confident and independent drivers, others preferred other modes of transportation such as public transport and walking. Anxiety was also found to be a barrier to driving. The contrast group revealed consistent viewpoints on their driving ability. They preferred driving as their main mode of transportation and believed that they were competent, safe and independent drivers. Conclusion: These results are important in the planning of transport policies and driver training for individuals with ASD. Driver training manuals can be developed to address anxiety issues, hazard perception and navigation problems in the ASD population. Their use of public transport could be further facilitated through more inclusive transport policies.
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2.
  • Falkmer, Marita, et al. (författare)
  • Viewpoints of adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders on public transport
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A : Policy and Practice. - 0965-8564. ; 80, s. 163-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Public transport is low cost, allows for independence, and facilitates engagement and participation for non-drivers. However, the viewpoints of individuals with cognitive disabilities are rarely considered. In Australia, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is approximately 1% and increasing. Many individuals with ASD do not possess a driver's licence, indicating that access to public transport is crucial for their independence. However, at present, there is no research on the opinions of adults with ASD on public transport. Aim: To identify the viewpoints of adults with ASD regarding the barriers and facilitators of public transport usage and their transportation preferences, and to contrast these against the viewpoints of neurotypical adults. Methods: Q. method was used to identify the viewpoints of both participant groups on public transport. Participants consisted of 55 adults with a diagnosis of ASD and a contrast group of 57 neurotypical adults. Both groups completed a Q sort task which took place in either Perth or Melbourne, Australia. Results: The most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to use public transport over driving and believed that it supported their independence. This viewpoint also indicated that both groups preferred to use electronic ticketing when using public transport. Interestingly, the second most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to drive themselves by private car rather than use public transport. Discussion: It appears that the viewpoints of adults with and without ASD regarding public transportation were largely similar. However, questions arose about whether the preference for public transport in the ASD group may be more a result of difficulties obtaining a driving licence than a deliberate choice. The only barrier specified by adults with ASD related to crowding on public transport. Safety and convenience in relation to location and timing of services were barriers reported by neurotypical adults.
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3.
  • Albrecht, Matthew A., et al. (författare)
  • Brief Report: : Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - 0162-3257. ; 44:9, s. 2369-2374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 42:2491–2497, 2012) repeated a critical methodological flaw by using an inappropriate viewing distance for a computerised acuity test, placing the findings in doubt. We examined visual acuity in 31 children with ASD and 33 controls using the 2 m 2000 Series Revised Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart placed at twice the conventional distance to better evaluate possible enhanced acuity. Children with ASD did not demonstrate superior acuity. The current findings strengthen the argument that reports of enhanced acuity in ASD are due to methodological flaws and challenges the reported association between visual acuity and systemising type behaviours.
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4.
  • Albrecht, Matthew A., et al. (författare)
  • Visual search strategies during facial recognition in children with ASD
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. - 1750-9467. ; 8:5, s. 559-569
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Facial recognition is a complex skill necessary for successful human interpersonal and social interactions. Given that the most prevalent disorder of social interaction is autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a number of studies have investigated and found impaired facial recognition abilities in people with ASD. Further, this impairment may be critically involved in mediating the deficits in interpersonal and social interactions in people with ASD. We sought to address the question of whether face processing is impaired in children with ASD in the current study. While there were a number of differences in visual search behaviours between the 19 children with ASD and the 15 controls, this did not manifest in deficits in facial recognition accuracy. In addition, there were notable differences with respect to eye fixation behaviours and recognition accuracy in this study compared to the findings in a previous similar study conducted in adults with ASD. These differences suggest a performance enhancing developmental trajectory in facial processing in controls that may not be present in individuals with ASD.
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5.
  • Almberg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation. - Taylor & Francis. - 1751-8423. ; 20:2, s. 59-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) experience any specific facilitators or barriers to driving education.Objective: To explore the facilitators or barriers to driving education experienced by individuals with ASD or ADHD who obtained a learner’s permit, from the perspective of the learner drivers and their driving instructors.Methods: Data were collected from 33 participants with ASD or ADHD, and nine of their driving instructors.Results: Participants with ASD required twice as many driving lessons and more on-road tests than those with ADHD. Participants with ADHD repeated the written tests more than those with ASD. Driving license theory was more challenging for individuals with ADHD, whilst individuals with ASD found translating theory into practice and adjusting to “unfamiliar” driving situations to be the greatest challenges.Conclusion: Obtaining a driving license was associated with stressful training experience.
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6.
  • Cowan, Georgia, et al. (författare)
  • Fixation patterns of individuals with and without Autism Spectrum disorder : Do they differ in shared zones and in zebra crossings?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Transport and Health. - Elsevier. - 2214-1405. ; 8, s. 112-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shared zones are a contemporary traffic zone that promotes equality between multiple road users and efficiently utilizes available space, while simultaneously maintaining safety and function. As this is a relatively new traffic zone, it is important to understand how pedestrians navigate a shared zone and any potential challenges this may pose to individuals with impairments. The aim of this study was to utilize eye-tracking technology to determine fixations and fixation duration on traffic relevant objects, non-traffic relevant objects, and eye contact, in 40 individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a shared zone and a zebra crossing. It was assumed that individuals with ASD would make less eye contact in the shared zone compared to the group of typically developing adults. A total of 3287 fixations across the shared zone and zebra crossing were analysed for areas of interest that were traffic relevant, non-traffic relevant, and eye contact, and for fixation duration. Individuals with ASD did not display any difference in terms of eye contact in the shared zone and the zebra crossing when compared to the controls. All pedestrians were more likely to look at traffic relevant objects at the zebra crossing compared to the shared zone. Individuals with ASD had an overall shorter fixation duration compared to the control group, indicating people with ASD either process information quickly, or they do not process it for long enough, although these findings require further investigation. While shared zones have many benefits for traffic movement and environmental quality, it appeared that pedestrians displayed safer road crossing behaviours at a zebra crossing than in a shared zone, indicating that more education and environmental adaptations are required to make shared zones safe for all pedestrians. 
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7.
  • Dahlman, Joakim, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Motion Sickness on Encoding and Retrieval
  • 2010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated. Background: The impact of motion sickness on human performance has been studied with regards to psychomotor functions and over learned skills, as well as to novel situations requiring encoding and retrieval skills through the use of short term memory. In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated. Method: Forty healthy participants, half of them males, performed a continuous recognition task (CRT) during exposure to a motion sickness triggering optokinetic drum. The CRT was employed as a measurement of performance and consisted of encoding and retrieval of words. The task consisted of three consecutive phases 1) encoding of familiar words; 2) encoding and retrieval of words under the influence of motion sickness; 3) retrieval of words after exposure. Results: Data analysis revealed no significant differences in the ability to encode or retrieve words during motion sickness compared with a control condition. In addition, there were no significant correlations between the level of motion sickness and performance of the CRT. Conclusion: The results indicate that encoding and retrieval of words are not affected by moderate levels of motion sickness. Application: This research has implications for operational settings where professionals experience moderate levels of motion sickness.
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8.
  • Dahlman, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Performance and Autonomic Responses during Motion Sickness
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Factors. - 0018-7208. ; 51:1, s. 56-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate how motion sickness, triggered by an optokinetic drum, affects short term memory performance and to explore autonomic responses to perceived motion sickness.Background: Previous research has found motion sickness to decrease performance, but it is not known how short term memory in particular is affected.Method: Thirty-eight healthy participants performed a listening span test while seated in a rotating optokinetic drum. Measurements of motion sickness, performance, heart rate, skin conductance, blood volume pulse, and pupil size were performed simultaneously throughout the experiment.Results: A total of 16 participants terminated the trial due to severe nausea, while the other 22 endured the full 25 minutes. Perceived motion sickness increased over time in both groups, but less among those who endured the trial. Short term memory performance decreased towards the end for those who terminated, while it increased for the other group. Results from the measured autonomic responses were ambiguous.Conclusion: The present study concludes that performance, measured as short term memory, declines as perceived motion sickness progresses.Application: This research has potential implications for command and control personnel in risk of developing motion sickness.
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9.
  • Earl, Robyn, et al. (författare)
  • Viewpoints of pedestrians with and without cognitive impairment on shared zones and zebra crossings
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundShared zones are characterised by an absence of traditional markers that segregate the road and footpath. Negotiation of a shared zone relies on an individual’s ability to perceive, assess and respond to environmental cues. This ability may be impacted by impairments in cognitive processing, which may lead to individuals experiencing increased anxiety when negotiating a shared zone.MethodQ method was used in order to identify and explore the viewpoints of pedestrians, with and without cognitive impairments as they pertain to shared zones.ResultsTwo viewpoints were revealed. Viewpoint one was defined by “confident users” while viewpoint two was defined by users who “know what [they] are doing but drivers might not”.DiscussionOverall, participants in the study would not avoid shared zones. Pedestrians with intellectual disability were, however, not well represented by either viewpoint, suggesting that shared zones may pose a potential barrier to participation for this group.
10.
  • Earl, Robyn, et al. (författare)
  • Visual search strategies of pedestrians with and without visual and cognitive impairments in a shared zone : A proof of concept study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Land use policy. - Elsevier. - 0264-8377. ; 57, s. 327-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shared zones have gained increasing popularity in urban land use and design as a means of incorporating the needs of multiple modes of transport, while at the same time promoting social interaction between users. Interactions within shared zones are based on a set of informal social protocols, communicated via eye contact and social cues. This proof of concept study utilised eye-tracking technology to examine the visual search strategies of individuals, with and without visual and cognitive impairments as they navigated a strategically chosen shared zone. In total 3960 fixations were analysed and the fixations were distributed across the shared zone and a pedestrian crossing. Those with impairments were more likely to fixate on traffic specific areas and objects compared to those without, suggesting that they required more input ascertaining when and where it was safe to perform tasks. However, the duration of fixation was not significantly different for an object whether it was traffic related or not, indicating a global need for increased processing time of the surrounding environment. Shared zones are claimed to increase driver awareness and safety and reduce congestion, but the implications on participation and safety for those with visual and cognitive impairments is yet to be extensively explored.
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