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Sökning: WFRF:(Fan Xing)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J, et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
  • Kristan, Matej, et al. (författare)
  • The Visual Object Tracking VOT2017 challenge results
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION WORKSHOPS (ICCVW 2017). - IEEE. - 978-1-5386-1034-3 ; s. 1949-1972
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2017 is the fifth annual tracker benchmarking activity organized by the VOT initiative. Results of 51 trackers are presented; many are state-of-the-art published at major computer vision conferences or journals in recent years. The evaluation included the standard VOT and other popular methodologies and a new "real-time" experiment simulating a situation where a tracker processes images as if provided by a continuously running sensor. Performance of the tested trackers typically by far exceeds standard baselines. The source code for most of the trackers is publicly available from the VOT page. The VOT2017 goes beyond its predecessors by (i) improving the VOT public dataset and introducing a separate VOT2017 sequestered dataset, (ii) introducing a realtime tracking experiment and (iii) releasing a redesigned toolkit that supports complex experiments. The dataset, the evaluation kit and the results are publicly available at the challenge website(1).
  • Caldez, Matias J, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic Remodeling during Liver Regeneration
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Developmental Cell. - Cell Press. - 1534-5807. ; 47:4, s. 425-438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Liver disease is linked to a decreased capacity of hepatocytes to divide. In addition, cellular metabolism is important for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Since metabolic changes are a hallmark of liver disease, we investigated the connections between metabolism and cell division. We determined global metabolic changes at different stages of liver regeneration using a combination of integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses with advanced functional redox in vivo imaging. Our data indicate that blocking hepatocyte division during regeneration leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and downregulation of oxidative pathways. This resulted in an increased redox ratio and hyperactivity of alanine transaminase allowing the production of alanine and α-ketoglutarate from pyruvate when mitochondrial functions are impaired. Our data suggests that during liver regeneration, cell division leads to hepatic metabolic remodeling. Moreover, we demonstrate that hepatocytes are equipped with a flexible metabolic machinery able to adapt dynamically to changes during tissue regeneration.
  • Dong, Yibo, et al. (författare)
  • Transfer-free, lithography-free and fast growth of patterned CVD graphene directly on insulators by using sacrificial metal catalyst
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nanotechnology. - 0957-4484. ; 29:36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemical vapor deposited graphene suffers from two problems: transfer from metal catalysts to insulators, and photoresist induced degradation during patterning. Both result in macroscopic and microscopic damages such as holes, tears, doping, and contamination, translated into property and yield dropping. We attempt to solve the problems simultaneously. A nickel thin film is evaporated on SiO2 as a sacrificial catalyst, on which surface graphene is grown. A polymer (PMMA) support is spin-coated on the graphene. During the Ni wet etching process, the etchant can permeate the polymer, making the etching efficient. The PMMA/graphene layer is fixed on the substrate by controlling the surface morphology of Ni film during the graphene growth. After etching, the graphene naturally adheres to the insulating substrate. By using this method, transfer-free, lithography-free and fast growth of graphene realized. The whole experiment has good repeatability and controllability. Compared with graphene transfer between substrates, here, no mechanical manipulation is required, leading to minimal damage. Due to the presence of Ni, the graphene quality is intrinsically better than catalyst-free growth. The Ni thickness and growth temperature are controlled to limit the number of layers of graphene. The technology can be extended to grow other two-dimensional materials with other catalysts.
  • Fan, Xing, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Admission control for switched real-time Ethernet scheduling analysis versus network calculus
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Proc. of the Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW’05), Halmstad, Sweden, Nov. 23-24, 2005. ; s. 4 s.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many approaches have been developed to give an estimation of the upper bound of the end-to-end delay or the response-time for real-time application, e.g., the Network Calculus (NC) model and the scheduling analysis. In this paper, we present an approach based on scheduling analysis to support guaranteed real-time services over standard switched Ethernet. Furthermore, we conduct a comparative study between these two admission control schemes, our novel algorithm and an NC-based algorithm. The simulation analysis shows that our feasibility analysis gives up to 50% higher utilization than the popular NC. Another advantage of our solution is that no additional hardware or software modification of the switch and the underlying standard. In our proposal, the traffic differentiation mechanism introduced by the IEEE 802.1D/Q standard and the standard hardware-implemented First Come First Served (FCFS) priority queuing are used in the switch and the source nodes. We have derived a feasibility analysis algorithm to ensure that the real-time requirements can be met. The algorithm also gives, as a sub-result, the needed buffer space in the end nodes and the switch. Moreover, our feasibility analysis supports variable-sized frames and switches with different bit-rates ports.
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