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1.
  • Burke, Sarah M., et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in own and other body perception
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 40:2, s. 474-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Own body perception, and differentiating and comparing one's body to another person's body, are common cognitive functions that have relevance for self-identity and social interactions. In several psychiatric conditions, including anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, gender dysphoria, and autism spectrum disorder, self and own body perception, as well as aspects of social communication are disturbed. Despite most of these conditions having skewed prevalence sex ratios, little is known about whether the neural basis of own body perception differs between the sexes. We addressed this question by investigating brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Body Perception task in 15 male and 15 female healthy participants. Participants viewed their own body, bodies of same-sex, or opposite-sex other people, and rated the degree that they appeared like themselves. We found that men and women did not differ in the pattern of brain activation during own body perception compared to a scrambled control image. However, when viewing images of other bodies of same-sex or opposite-sex, men showed significantly stronger activations in attention-related and reward-related brain regions, whereas women engaged stronger activations in striatal, medial-prefrontal, and insular cortices, when viewing the own body compared to other images of the opposite sex. It is possible that other body images, particularly of the opposite sex, may be of greater salience for men, whereas images of own bodies may be more salient for women. These observations provide tentative neurobiological correlates to why women may be more vulnerable than men to conditions involving own body perception.
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2.
  • Majid, D. S. Adnan, et al. (författare)
  • Neural Systems for Own-body Processing Align with Gender Identity Rather Than Birth-assigned Sex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 30:5, s. 2897-2909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gender identity is a core aspect of self-identity and is usually congruent with birth-assigned sex and own body sex-perception. The neuronal circuits underlying gender identity are unknown, but greater awareness of transgenderism has sparked interest in studying these circuits. We did this by comparing brain activation and connectivity in transgender individuals (for whom gender identity and birth-assigned sex are incongruent) with that in cisgender controls (for whom they are congruent) when performing a body self-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty transgender and 30 cisgender participants viewed images of their own bodies and bodies morphed in sex toward or opposite to birth-assigned sex, rating each image to the degree they identified with it. While controls identified with images of themselves, transgender individuals identified with images morphed opposite to their birth-assigned sex. After covarying out the effect of self-similarity ratings, both groups activated similar self- and body-processing systems when viewing bodies that aligned with their gender identity rather than birth-assigned sex. Additionally, transgender participants had greater limbic involvement when viewing ambiguous, androgynous images of themselves morphed toward their gender identity. These results shed light on underlying self-processing networks specific to gender identity and uncover additional involvement of emotional processing in transgender individuals.
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