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Sökning: WFRF:(Feychting Maria)

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1.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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2.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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3.
  • Jacobs, Kevin B, et al. (författare)
  • Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - New York : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:6, s. 651-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% under 50 years to 1.91% between 75 and 79 years (P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals; odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; P = 0.016), with stronger association with cases who had DNA collected before diagnosis or treatment (OR = 1.45; P = 0.0005). Detectable mosaicism was also more common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least 1 year before diagnosis with leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR = 35.4; P = 3.8 × 10(-11)). These findings underscore the time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and potentially other late-onset diseases.
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4.
  • Adel Fahmideh, Maral, et al. (författare)
  • A Weighted Genetic Risk Score of Adult Glioma Susceptibility Loci Associated with Pediatric Brain Tumor Risk.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic risk score (GRS) is used to demonstrate the genetic variants contributing to the polygenic architecture of complex diseases. By using a GRS, we have investigated the additive impact of the known adult glioma susceptibility loci on the pediatric brain tumor (PBT) risk and assessed the proportion of PBT heritability attributable to these susceptibility loci. A GRS was generated for PBTs based on the alleles and associated effect sizes derived from a previously published genome-wide association study on adult glioma. The GRS was calculated in CEFALO, a population-based case-control study of brain tumors in children and adolescents including saliva DNA of 245 cases and 489 controls. The unconditional logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between standardized GRS and risk of PBTs. To measure the variance explained by the effect of GRS, Nagelkerke pseudo-R2 was calculated. The GRS for adult brain tumors was associated with an increased risk of PBTs (OR 1.25 [95% CI 1.06-1.49], p = 0.009) and 0.3% of the variance in PBTs could be explained by the effect of GRS on the liability scale. This study provides evidence that heritable risks of PBTs are in-part attributable to some common genetic variants associated with adult glioma.
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5.
  • Adel Fahmideh, Maral, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine. - 1949-2553.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge on the role of genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) is limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identifid by candidate gene-association studies on adult brain tumors, and PBT risk. The study is based on the largest series of PBT cases to date. Saliva DNA from 245 cases and 489 controls, aged 7–19 years at diagnosis/reference date, was genotyped for 68 SNPs. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The results showed EGFRrs730437 and EGFRrs11506105 may decrease susceptibility to PBTs, whereas ERCC1rs3212986 may increase risk of these tumors. Moreover, stratifid analyses indicated CHAF1Ars243341, CHAF1Ars2992, and XRCC1rs25487 were associated with a decreased risk of astrocytoma subtype. Furthermore, an increased risk of non-astrocytoma subtype associated with EGFRrs9642393, EME1rs12450550, ATMrs170548, and GLTSCRrs1035938 as well as a decreased risk of this subtype associated with XRCC4rs7721416 and XRCC4rs2662242 were detected. This study indicates SNPs in EGFR, ERCC1, CHAF1A, XRCC1, EME1, ATM, GLTSCR1, and XRCC4 may be associated with the risk of PBTs. Therefore, cell cycle and DNA repair pathways variations associated with susceptibility to adult brain tumors also seem to be associated with PBT risk, suggesting pediatric and adult brain tumors might share similar etiological pathways.
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6.
  • Adel Fahmideh, Maral, et al. (författare)
  • Parental age and risk of genetic syndromes predisposing to nervous system tumors: nested case-control study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical epidemiology. - 1179-1349. ; 10, s. 729-738
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phacomatoses are genetic syndromes that are associated with increased risk of developing nervous system tumors. Phacomatoses are usually inherited, but many develop de novo, with unknown etiology. In this population-based study, we investigated the effect of parental age on the risk of phacomatoses in offspring.The study was a population-based nested case-control study. All individuals born and residing in Sweden between January 1960 and December 2010 were eligible for inclusion. Using the Patient Register, 4625 phacomatosis cases were identified and further classified as familial or nonfamilial. Ten matched controls per case were randomly selected from the eligible population. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Analyses were conducted for neurofibromatosis alone (n=2089) and other phacomatoses combined (n=2536).Compared with offspring of fathers aged 25-29 years, increased risk estimates of nonfamilial neurofibromatosis were found for offspring of fathers aged 35-39 years (odds ratio [OR]=1.43 [95% CI 1.16-1.74]) and ≥40 years (OR =1.74 [95% CI 1.38-2.19]). For other nonfamilial phacomatoses, the risk estimate for offspring of fathers aged ≥40 years was OR =1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.50). Paternal age was not associated with familial phacomatoses, and no consistent association was observed with maternal age.The findings show a consistent increase in risk of de novo occurrence of phacomatoses predisposing to nervous system tumors in offspring with increasing paternal age, most pronounced for neurofibromatosis, while maternal age did not seem to influence the risk. These findings suggest an increasing rate of new mutations in the NF1 and NF2 genes in spermatozoa of older fathers.
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7.
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8.
  • Ahlbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational magnetic field exposure and myocardial infarction incidence.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology. - 1044-3983 .- 1531-5487. ; 15:4, s. 403-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Studies on healthy volunteers have seen reduced heart rate variability after exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Because reduced heart rate variability has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, it has been hypothesized that exposure to EMF might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. One epidemiologic study has shown increased mortality from cardiovascular conditions in utility workers with elevated exposure to magnetic fields, but several other epidemiologic studies have failed to confirm this result. We tested the hypothesis that occupational EMF exposure increases the risk of myocardial infarction in a large population-based case-control study of myocardial infarction, with detailed information on potential confounders. METHODS: We used data from the SHEEP study, which is a population-based case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in Stockholm. Occupational EMF exposure was based on job titles 1, 5, and 10 years before diagnosis. We used 2 approaches to classify exposure: first, specific individual job titles with presumed elevated EMF exposure, and second, classification of subjects according to a job-exposure matrix. RESULTS: We found no increased risk of myocardial infarction in subjects classified as having elevated EMF exposure. For the highest exposure category of > or = 0.3 microT according to the job-exposure matrix, the adjusted relative risk was = 0.57 (95% confidence interval = 0.36-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that occupational EMF exposure increases the risk of myocardial infarction.
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9.
  • Andel, Ross, et al. (författare)
  • Work-related exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and dementia: results from the population-based study of dementia in Swedish twins.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1758-535X .- 1079-5006. ; 65:11, s. 1220-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We examined the association between extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease using all 9,508 individuals from the Study of Dementia in Swedish Twins (HARMONY) with valid occupational and diagnostic data. METHODS: Dementia diagnoses were based on telephone screening followed by in-person clinical workup. Main lifetime occupation was coded according to an established EMF exposure matrix. Covariates were age, gender, education, vascular risk factors, and complexity of work. Based on previous research, data were also analyzed separately for cases with disease onset by age 75 years versus later, men versus women, and those with manual versus nonmanual main occupation. We used generalized estimating equations with the entire sample (to adjust for the inclusion of complete twin pairs) and conditional logistic regression with complete twin pairs only. RESULTS: Level of EMF exposure was not significantly associated with dementia or Alzheimer's disease. However, in stratified analyses, medium and high levels of EMF exposure were associated with increased dementia risk compared with low level in cases with onset by age 75 years (odds ratio: 1.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.65 for medium, odds ratio: 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.65 for high) and in participants with manual occupations (odds ratio: 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.09 for medium, odds ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-3.05 for high). Results with 42 twin pairs discordant for dementia did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational EMF exposure appears relevant primarily to dementia with an earlier onset and among former manual workers.
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10.
  • Andersson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive study of the association between the EGFR and ERBB2 genes and glioma risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 49:6, s. 767-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glioma is the most common type of adult brain tumor and glioblastoma, its most aggressive form, has a dismal prognosis. Receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4) family, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), play a central role in tumor progression. We investigated the genetic variants of EGFR, ERBB2, VEGFR and their ligands, EGF and VEGF on glioma and glioblastoma risk. In addition, we evaluated the association of genetic variants of a newly discovered family of genes known to interact with EGFR: LRIG2 and LRIG3 with glioma and glioblastoma risk. Methods. We analyzed 191 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capturing all common genetic variation of EGF, EGFR, ERBB2, LRIG2, LRIG3, VEGF and VEGFR2 genes. Material from four case-control studies with 725 glioma patients (329 of who were glioblastoma patients) and their 1 610 controls was used. Haplotype analyses were conducted using SAS/Genetics software. Results. Fourteen of the SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk at p< 0.05, and 17 of the SNPs were significantly associated with glioblastoma risk at p< 0.05. In addition, we found that one EGFR haplotype was related to increased glioblastoma risk at p=0.009, Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 2.45). The Bonferroni correction made all p-values non-significant. One SNP, rs4947986 next to the intron/exon boundary of exon 7 in EGFR, was validated in an independent data set of 713 glioblastoma and 2 236 controls, [OR] = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06,1.91). Discussion. Previous studies show that regulation of the EGFR pathway plays a role in glioma progression but the present study is the first to find that certain genotypes of the EGFR gene may be related to glioblastoma risk. Further studies are required to reinvestigate these findings and evaluate the functional significance.
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