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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Fitzpatrick Annette) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Fitzpatrick Annette)

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1.
  • Davies, Gail, et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total <em>N</em> = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (<em>P</em> &lt; 5 x 10<sup>-8</sup>) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.</p>
2.
  • Davies, Gail, et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.</p>
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3.
  • Sims, Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:9, s. 1373-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P &lt; 1 x 10(-4)) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p. Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 x 10(-10), odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF) cases = 0.0059, MAFcontrols = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p. Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 x 10-10, OR = 1.43, MAFcases = 0.011, MAFcontrols = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p. Arg62His, P = 1.55 x 10(-14), OR = 1.67, MAFcases = 0.0143, MAFcontrols = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.</p>
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4.
  • Baldeh, Tejan, et al. (författare)
  • Development and use of health outcome descriptors a guideline development case study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. - BioMed Central. - 1477-7525 .- 1477-7525. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: During healthcare guideline development, panel members often have implicit, different definitions of health outcomes that can lead to misunderstandings about how important these outcomes are and how to balance benefits and harms. McMaster GRADE Centre researchers developed ‘health outcome descriptors’ for standardizing descriptions of health outcomes and overcoming these problems to support the European Commission Initiative on Breast Cancer (ECIBC) Guideline Development Group (GDG). We aimed to determine which aspects of the development, content, and use of health outcome descriptors were valuable to guideline developers.</p><p>Methods: We developed 24 health outcome descriptors related to breast cancer screening and diagnosis for the European Commission Breast Guideline Development Group (GDG). Eighteen GDG members provided feedback in written format or in interviews. We then evaluated the process and conducted two health utility rating surveys.</p><p>Results: Feedback from GDG members revealed that health outcome descriptors are probably useful for developing recommendations and improving transparency of guideline methods. Time commitment, methodology training, and need for multidisciplinary expertise throughout development were considered important determinants of the process. Comparison of the two health utility surveys showed a decrease in standard deviation in the second survey across 21 (88%) of the outcomes.</p><p>Conclusions: Health outcome descriptors are feasible and should be developed prior to the outcome prioritization step in the guideline development process. Guideline developers should involve a subgroup of multidisciplinary experts in all stages of development and ensure all guideline panel members are trained in guideline methodology that includes understanding the importance of defining and understanding the outcomes of interest.</p>
5.
  • Escott-Price, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-Wide Analysis Detects Two New Susceptibility Genes for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:6, s. e94661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls. Principal Findings: In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4x10(-6)) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9x10(-8)) which indexed novel susceptibility loci. Significance: The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.</p>
6.
  • Escott-Price, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Gene-Wide Analysis Detects Two New Susceptibility Genes for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:6, s. e94661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls. Principal Findings: In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 8 (TP53INP1, p = 1.4x10(-6)) and 14 (IGHV1-67 p = 7.9x10(-8)) which indexed novel susceptibility loci. Significance: The additional genes identified in this study, have an array of functions previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including aspects of energy metabolism, protein degradation and the immune system and add further weight to these pathways as potential therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease.</p>
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7.
  • Ewers, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index is associated with biological CSF markers of core brain pathology of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - Elsevier. - 1558-1497. ; 33:8, s. 1599-1608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and postmortem findings suggest a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (A beta(1-42)), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF-). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared with the CSF- group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and nondemented elderly subjects. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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8.
  • Gardner, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Gender and telomere length : Systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology. - Elsevier. - 0531-5565 .- 1873-6815. ; 51, s. 15-27
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory. Methods: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that in humans, females have longer telomeres than males and that this association becomes stronger with increasing age. Searches were conducted in EMBASE and MEDLINE (by November 2009) and additional datasets were obtained from study investigators. Eligible observational studies measured telomeres for both females and males of any age, had a minimum sample size of 100 and included participants not part of a diseased group. We calculated summary estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Heterogeneity between studies was investigated using sub-group analysis and meta-regression. Results: Meta-analyses from 36 cohorts (36,230 participants) showed that on average females had longer telomeres than males (standardised difference in telomere length between females and males 0.090, 95% CI 0.015, 0.166; age-adjusted). There was little evidence that these associations varied by age group (p = 1.00) or cell type (p = 0.29). However, the size of this difference did vary by measurement methods, with only Southern blot but neither real-time PCR nor Flow-FISH showing a significant difference. This difference was not associated with random measurement error. Conclusions: Telomere length is longer in females thanmales, although this difference was not universally found in studies that did not use Southern blot methods. Further research on explanations for the methodological differences is required. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.</p>
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9.
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10.
  • Hardy, Victoria, et al. (författare)
  • The added value of a mobile application of Community Case Management on referral, re-consultation and hospitalization rates of children aged under 5 years in two districts in Northern Malawi : Study protocol for a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Trials. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6215. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is evidence to suggest that frontline community health workers in Malawi are under-referring children to higher-level facilities. Integrating a digitized version of paper-based methods of Community Case Management (CCM) could strengthen delivery, increasing urgent referral rates and preventing unnecessary re-consultations and hospital admissions. This trial aims to evaluate the added value of the Supporting LIFE electronic Community Case Management Application (SL eCCM App) compared to paper-based CCM on urgent referral, re-consultation and hospitalization rates, in two districts in Northern Malawi. Methods/design: This is a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial assessing the added value of the SL eCCM App on urgent referral, re-consultation and hospitalization rates of children aged 2 months and older to up to 5 years, within 7 days of the index visit. One hundred and two health surveillance assistants (HSAs) were stratified into six clusters based on geographical location, and clusters randomized to the timing of crossover to the intervention using simple, computer-generated randomization. Training workshops were conducted prior to the control (paper-CCM) and intervention (paper-CCM + SL eCCM App) in assigned clusters. Neither participants nor study personnel were blinded to allocation. Outcome measures were determined by abstraction of clinical data from patient records 2 weeks after recruitment. A nested qualitative study explored perceptions of adherence to urgent referral recommendations and a cost evaluation determined the financial and time-related costs to caregivers of subsequent health care utilization. The trial was conducted between July 2016 and February 2017. Discussion: This is the first large-scale trial evaluating the value of adding a mobile application of CCM to the assessment of children aged under 5 years. The trial will generate evidence on the potential use of mobile health for CCM in Malawi, and more widely in other low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02763345. Registered on 3 May 2016.
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