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Sökning: WFRF:(Fletcher Tony)

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1.
  • Li, Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926 .- 1351-0711. ; 75:1, s. 46-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Municipal drinking water contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids had been distributed to one-third of households in Ronneby, Sweden. The source was firefighting foam used in a nearby airfield since the mid-1980s. Clean water was provided from 16 December 2013.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of decline in serum perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and their corresponding half-lives.METHODS: Up to seven blood samples were collected between June 2014 and September 2016 from 106 participants (age 4-84 years, 53% female).RESULTS: Median initial serum concentrations were PFHxS, 277 ng/mL (range 12-1660); PFOS, 345 ng/mL (range 24-1500); and PFOA, 18 ng/mL (range 2.4-92). The covariate-adjusted average rates of decrease in serum were PFHxS, 13% per year (95% CI 12% to 15%); PFOS, 20% per year (95% CI 19% to 22%); and PFOA, 26% per year (95% CI 24% to 28%). The observed data are consistent with a first-order elimination model. The mean estimated half-life was 5.3 years (95% CI 4.6 to 6.0) for PFHxS, 3.4 years (95% CI 3.1 to 3.7) for PFOS and 2.7 years (95% CI 2.5 to 2.9) for PFOA. The interindividual variation of half-life was around threefold when comparing the 5th and 95th percentiles. There was a marked sex difference with more rapid elimination in women for PFHxS and PFOS, but only marginally for PFOA.CONCLUSIONS: The estimated half-life for PFHxS was considerably longer than for PFOS and PFOA. For PFHxS and PFOS, the average half-life is shorter than the previously published estimates. For PFOA the half-life is in line with the range of published estimates.
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2.
  • Andersson, Eva M., et al. (författare)
  • High exposure to perfluorinated compounds in drinking water and thyroid disease. A cohort study from Ronneby, Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are extremely persistent manmade substances. Apart from exposure through food and indoor air and dust, humans can be exposed through drinking water if the surface or groundwater is contaminated. In 2013 very high levels of PFOS and PFHxS were found in the drinking water from one of the two waterworks supplying the municipality of Ronneby, Sweden. A cohort was formed, including all individuals who had lived at least one year in Ronneby during the period 1980–2013 (ñ63,000). Each year, addresses that got their drinking water from the contaminated water works were identified. Through the Swedish personal identity number, each individual was linked to registers providing diagnoses and prescriptions for hyper- and hypothyroidism. In total, 16,150 individuals had ever been exposed. The hazard ratios did not indicate any excess risk of hyperthyroidism among those with contaminated water. For hypothyroidism, the risk of being prescribed medication was significantly increased among women with exposure during the mid part of the study period (but not men). However, the association with period of exposure was non-monotonic, so the significance is considered to be a chance finding. Our research was limited by the relatively simple exposure assessment.
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3.
  • Engström, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT), arsenic metabolism and risk of basal cell carcinoma in a European population.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1098-2280. ; 56:1, s. 60-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Arsenic metabolism is a susceptibility factor for arsenic toxicity, and specific haplotypes in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) have been associated with increased urinary fractions of the most toxic arsenic metabolite, methylarsonic acid (MMA). The aim of this study is to elucidate the association of AS3MT haplotypes with arsenic metabolism and the risk of BCC. Four AS3MT polymorphisms were genotyped in BCC cases (N = 529) and controls (N = 533) from Eastern Europe with low to moderate arsenic exposure (lifetime average drinking water concentration: 1.3 µg/L, range 0.01-167 µg/L). Urinary metabolites [inorganic arsenic (iAs), MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] were analyzed by HPLC-ICPMS. Five AS3MT haplotypes (based on rs3740400 A/C, rs3740393 G/C, rs11191439 T/C and rs1046778 T/C) had frequencies >5%. Individuals with the CCTC haplotype had lower %iAs (P = 0.032) and %MMA (P = 0.020) in urine, and higher %DMA (P = 0.033); individuals with the CGCT haplotype had higher %MMA (P < 0.001) and lower %DMA (P < 0.001). All haplotypes showed increased risk of BCC with increasing arsenic exposure through drinking water (ORs 1.1-1.4, P values from <0.001 to 0.082), except for the CCTC haplotype (OR 1.0, CI 0.9-1.2, P value 0.85). The results suggest that carriage of AS3MT haplotypes associated with less-efficient arsenic methylation, or lack of AS3MT haplotypes associated with a more-efficient arsenic methylation, results in higher risk of arsenic-related BCC. The fact that AS3MT haplotype status modified arsenic metabolism, and in turn the arsenic-related BCC risk, supports a causal relationship between low-level arsenic exposure and BCC. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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4.
  • Figueroa, Jonine D., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a novel susceptibility locus at 13q34 and refinement of the 20p12.2 region as a multi-signal locus associated with bladder cancer risk in individuals of European ancestry
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 25:6, s. 1203-1214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 × 10−6), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 × 10−11) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 × 10−10). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region—the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r2 = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case–case P ≤ 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.
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5.
  • Johansson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of obesity-related factors in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma—A mendelian randomization study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation.Methods and findings: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40–1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44–1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30–2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11–1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84–1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose.Conclusions: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.
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6.
  • Laskar, Ruhina S, et al. (författare)
  • Sex specific associations in genome wide association analysis of renal cell carcinoma.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 27:10, s. 1589-1598
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.
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7.
  • Li, Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between perfluoroalkyl substances and serum lipids in a Swedish adult population with contaminated drinking water
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1476-069X. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have shown positive associations with serum lipids in previous studies. While many studies on lipids investigated associations with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), there are only a few studies regarding other PFAS, such as perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The purpose of the current study is to investigate if associations with serum lipids were present, not only for serum PFOS and PFOA, but also for PFHxS, and if the associations with PFAS remained also in a comparison based only on residency in areas with contrasting exposure to PFAS. Methods 1945 adults aged 20-60 were included from Ronneby, Sweden, a municipality where one out of two waterworks had been heavily contaminated from aqueous fire-fighting foams, and from a nearby control area. The exposure was categorized based on either been living in areas with contrasting PFAS exposure or based on the actual serum PFAS measurements. Regression analyses of serum lipids were fitted against serum PFAS levels, percentile groups, smooth splines and between exposed and reference areas, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Results Drinking water contamination caused high serum levels of PFOS (median 157 ng/ml) and PFHxS (median 136 ng/ml) and PFOA (median 8.6 ng/ml). These serum PFAS levels in the exposed groups were 5 to 100-fold higher than in the controls. In this population with mixed PFAS exposure, predominantly PFOS and PFHxS, PFAS exposure were positively associated with serum lipids. This was observed both when quantifying exposure as contrast between exposed and controls, and in terms of serum PFAS. Due to high correlations between each PFAS, we cannot separate them. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study provides further evidence of a causal association between PFAS and serum lipids, especially for PFHxS.
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8.
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9.
  • Machiela, Mitchell J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants Related to Longer Telomere Length are Associated with Increased Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 72:5, s. 747-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings.Objective: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations.Design, setting, and participants: Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis.Results and limitations: Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR = 2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: = 1.70-2.53, p < 0.0001). As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded two telomere length variants in linkage disequilibrium (R-2 > 0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.36-2.21, p < 0.0001). Exploratory analyses for individual histologic subtypes suggested comparable associations with the telomere length GRS for clear cell (N = 5573, OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.50-2.49, p < 0.0001), papillary (N = 573, OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.01-3.81, p = 0.046), and chromophobe RCC (N = 203, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.78-7.17, p = 0.13).Conclusions: Our investigation adds to the growing body of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk.Patient summary: Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.
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10.
  • Pearce, Neil E, et al. (författare)
  • IARC Monographs : 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 507-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' failures to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans.OBJECTIVES: The authors of this paper are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We have examined here criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. We review the history of IARC evaluations and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed.DISCUSSION: We conclude that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various discipline and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed.CONCLUSIONS: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.
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