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1.
2.
  • Abtahi, Farhad, et al. (författare)
  • Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability : A pilot study with drivers on real roads
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: IFMBE Proceedings. - Springer Verlag. - 9789811051210 ; s. 149-152
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems.</p><p>Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.</p>
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3.
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4.
  • Ahlstrom, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of daylight versus darkness on driver sleepiness: a driving simulator study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - WILEY. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869. ; 27:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Driver sleepiness studies are often carried out with alert drivers during daytime and sleep-deprived drivers during night-time. This design results in a mixture of different factors (e.g. circadian effects, homeostatic effects, light conditions) that may confound the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 +/- 1.7years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove on a rural road. A 2x2 design was used with the conditions daylight versus darkness, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results show that light condition had an independent effect on the sleepiness variables. The subjective sleepiness measured by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, lateral position more left-oriented, speed lower, electroencephalogram alpha and theta higher, and blink durations were longer during darkness. The number of line crossings did not change significantly with light condition. The day/night condition had profound effects on most sleepiness indicators while controlling for light condition. The number of line crossings was higher during night driving, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, blink durations were longer and speed was lower. There were no significant interactions, indicating that light conditions have an additive effect on sleepiness. In conclusion, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and blink durations increase primarily with sleep deprivation, but also as an effect of darkness. Line crossings are mainly driven by the need for sleep and the reduced alertness at the circadian nadir. Lane position is, however, more determined by light conditions than by sleepiness.</p>
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5.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving A toolbox of counter-measures
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents : Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013. - Linköping : Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.</p><p>Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.</p>
6.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 112, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.</p>
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7.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 112, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.</p>
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8.
  • Ahlström, Christer, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 112, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.</p>
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9.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers’ sleepiness level : Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C : Emerging Technologies. - 0968-090X .- 1879-2359. ; 26, s. 20-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be R=. 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS ≥ 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.</p>
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10.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers' sleepiness level : Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C : Emerging Technologies. - 0968-090X .- 1879-2359. ; 26, s. 20-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be <em>R</em> = 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS ⩾ 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers.</p>
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