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Sökning: WFRF:(Forsberg Anton)

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  • Stomrud, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • CSF biomarkers correlate with cerebral blood flow on SPECT in healthy elderly.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders. - : Karger. - 1421-9824 .- 1420-8008. ; 33:2-3, s. 156-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The preclinical patterns of biological markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo need further exploration. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate CSF biomarkers, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cognitive performance in cognitively healthy older individuals.
  • Forsberg, A., et al. (författare)
  • The Immune Response of the Human Brain to Abdominal Surgery
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : WILEY. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 81:4, s. 572-582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans. This study examines the short-and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. Methods: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general anesthesia were included. Prior to surgery (baseline), at postoperative days 3 to 4, and after 3 months, patients were examined using [C-11]PBR28 brain PET imaging to assess brain immune cell activation. Concurrently, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, ex vivo blood tests on immunoreactivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and cognitive function were assessed. Results: Patients showed a global downregulation of gray matter [C-11]PBR28 binding of 26 +/- 26% (mean +/- standard deviation) at 3 to 4 days postoperatively compared to baseline (p=0.023), recovering or even increasing after 3 months. LPS-induced release of the proinflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor-a in blood displayed a reduction (41 +/- 39%) on the 3rd to 4th postoperative day, corresponding to changes in [C-11]PBR28 distribution volume. Change in Stroop Color-Word Test performance between postoperative days 3 to 4 and 3 months correlated to change in [C-11]PBR28 binding (p=0.027). Interpretation: This study translates preclinical data on changes in the brain immune system after surgery to humans, and suggests an interplay between the human brain and the inflammatory response of the peripheral innate immune system. These findings may be related to postsurgical impairments of cognitive function.
  • Sommar, J. N., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and black carbon in relation to natural and cause-specific mortality: a multicohort study in Sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Bmj Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 11:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. Setting Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umea, Sweden. Design High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter <= 10 mu m (PM10) and <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. Participants During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. Results Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 mu g/m(3)) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 mu g/m(3)) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 mu g/m(3) and 1 mu g/m(3) of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 mu g/m(3)), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 mu g/m(3), but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. Conclusion The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.
  • Tamm, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • Objective and Subjective Sleep in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Severe Seasonal Allergy : Preliminary Assessments of the Role of Sickness, Central and Peripheral Inflammation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature and Science of Sleep. - : DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD. - 1179-1608. ; 13, s. 775-789
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Disturbed sleep in inflammatory disorders such as allergy and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is common and may be directly or indirectly related to disease processes, but has not been well characterized in these patient groups, especially not with objective methods.Aim: The present study aimed to characterize objective and subjective sleep in patients with allergy or RA using sleep diaries, one-channel EEG and actigraphy. It also aimed to investigate if sleep measures were associated with central immune activation, assessed using translocator protein (TSPO) positron emission tomography, as well as cytokine markers of peripheral inflammation and disease-specific symptoms or general symptoms of sickness.Methods: In total, 18 patients with seasonal pollen allergy, 18 patients with RA and 26 healthy controls were included in the study. Allergy patients and matched controls were assessed twice, in and out of pollen season, and RA patients and controls were assessed once. Sleep was recorded for approximately 1 week at each occasion.Results: Patients with allergy had increased levels of slow-wave sleep during pollen season. In contrast, patients with RA had less SWS compared to healthy controls, while no differences were observed in sleep duration or subjective sleep quality. Across groups, neither proinflammatory cytokines, grey matter TSPO levels nor general sickness symptoms were associated with objective or subjective measures of sleep. Rhinitis, but not conjunctivitis, was correlated to worse subjective sleep and more slow wave sleep in allergy. Functional status, but not disease activity, predicted lower subjective sleep in RA.Conclusion: This study tentatively indicates that both patients with allergy and RA display sleep alterations but does not support inflammation as an independent predictor of the sleep disturbance across these patient groups.
  • Albrecht, Daniel S., et al. (författare)
  • Brain glial activation in fibromyalgia - A multi-site positron emission tomography investigation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 75, s. 72-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fibromyalgia (FM) is a poorly understood chronic condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. While mounting evidence suggests a role for neuroinflammation, no study has directly provided evidence of brain glial activation in FM. In this study, we conducted a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study using [C-11]PBR28, which binds to the translocator protein (TSPO), a protein upregulated in activated microglia and astrocytes. To enhance statistical power and generalizability, we combined datasets collected independently at two separate institutions (Massachusetts General Hospital [MGH] and Karolinska Institutet [KI]). In an attempt to disentangle the contributions of different glial cell types to FM, a smaller sample was scanned at KI with [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 PET, thought to primarily reflect astrocytic (but not microglial) signal. Thirty-one FM patients and 27 healthy controls (HC) were examined using [C-11]PBR28 PET. 11 FM patients and 11 HC were scanned using [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 PET. Standardized uptake values normalized by occipital cortex signal (SUVR) and distribution volume (V-T) were computed from the [C-11]PBR28 data. [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 was quantified using lambda k(3). PET imaging metrics were compared across groups, and when differing across groups, against clinical variables. Compared to HC, FM patients demonstrated widespread cortical elevations, and no decreases, in [C-11]PBR28 ITT and SUVR, most pronounced in the medial and lateral walls of the frontal and parietal lobes. No regions showed significant group differences in [C-11]-L-deprenyl-Ds signal, including those demonstrating elevated [C-11] PBR28 signal in patients (p's >= 0.53, uncorrected). The elevations in [C-11]PBR28 V-T and SUVR were correlated both spatially (i.e., were observed in overlapping regions) and, in several areas, also in terms of magnitude. In exploratory, uncorrected analyses, higher subjective ratings of fatigue in FM patients were associated with higher [C-11] PBR28 SUVR in the anterior and posterior middle cingulate cortices (p's < 0.03). SUVR was not significantly associated with any other clinical variable. Our work provides the first in vivo evidence supporting a role for glial activation in FM pathophysiology. Given that the elevations in [C-11]PBR28 signal were not also accompanied by increased [C-11]-deprenyl-D2 signal, our data suggests that microglia, but not astrocytes, may be driving the TSPO elevation in these regions. Although [C-11]-L-deprenyl-D2 signal was not found to be increased in FM patients, larger studies are needed to further assess the role of possible astrocytic contributions in FM. Overall, our data support glial modulation as a potential therapeutic strategy for FM.
  • Behzadi, Arvin, et al. (författare)
  • Neurofilaments can differentiate ALS subgroups and ALS from common diagnostic mimics.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis are frequent in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common form of motor neuron disease (MND). Neurofilament light chain (NFL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH) are elevated in ALS patients. We retrospectively quantified cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NFL, CSF pNFH and plasma NFL in stored samples that were collected at the diagnostic work-up of ALS patients (n = 234), ALS mimics (n = 44) and controls (n = 9). We assessed the diagnostic performance, prognostication value and relationship to the site of onset and genotype. CSF NFL, CSF pNFH and plasma NFL levels were significantly increased in ALS patients compared to patients with neuropathies & myelopathies, patients with myopathies and controls. Furthermore, CSF pNFH and plasma NFL levels were significantly higher in ALS patients than in patients with other MNDs. Bulbar onset ALS patients had significantly higher plasma NFL levels than spinal onset ALS patients. ALS patients with C9orf72HRE mutations had significantly higher plasma NFL levels than patients with SOD1 mutations. Survival was negatively correlated with all three biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristics showed the highest area under the curve for CSF pNFH for differentiating ALS from ALS mimics and for plasma NFL for estimating ALS short and long survival. All three biomarkers have diagnostic value in differentiating ALS from clinically relevant ALS mimics. Plasma NFL levels can be used to differentiate between clinical and genetic ALS subgroups.
  • Darreh-Shori, Taher, et al. (författare)
  • Differential levels of apolipoprotein E and butyrylcholinesterase show strong association with pathological signs of Alzheimer's disease in the brain in vivo
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 32:12, s. 2320.e15-2320.e32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, we reported that 3 of the known risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e., advanced age, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4, and female gender, are associated with differential levels of ApoE proteins and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients. The ApoE ε4 allele and certain BuChE polymorphisms synergistically affect the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Here, we investigated interrelationships between ApoE and BuChE levels, and pathological markers of AD in vivo. CSF from patients with probable AD, assessed for cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc; n = 50) and Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) retention (β-amyloid [Aβ] load, n = 29) by positron emission tomography (PET), was used for measurement of BuChE, ApoE, Aβ, tau, phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels. Levels of ApoE and BuChE strongly correlated with CMRglc (fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG]-PET, r = 0.54, p < 0.0001, n = 50), cerebral Aβ load (PIB retention, r = 0.73, p < 0.0001, n = 29), and CSF P-tau (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001, n = 33). High ApoE protein was tied to low CMRglc and high PIB retention and P-tau. BuChE levels had opposite relationships. Other CSF covariates were levels of interleukin-1β and Aβ42peptide. The pattern of the patients' cognitive Z-scores strongly supported these observations. High ApoE protein was also linked to changes in 3 of the biodynamic properties of BuChE. In vitro analysis indicated that high ApoE protein levels were related to an increased pool of dormant BuChE molecules with an abnormally high intrinsic catalytic rate in CSF, which was “turned on” by excess Aβ peptides. The findings suggest that abnormally high levels of ApoE may play a causative role in the pathological events of AD, particularly those involving the early cholinergic deficit in the AD brain, through modulation of cholinesterases activities, hence disturbing the acetylcholine-dependent activity of neurons and nonexcitable cells such as glial cells.
  • Engler, Henry, et al. (författare)
  • Two-year follow-up of amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Brain. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 129:Pt 11, s. 2856-2866
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Beta amyloid is one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported in vivo imaging of amyloid in 16 Alzheimer patients, using the PET ligand N-methyl[11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole (PIB). In the present study we rescanned these 16 Alzheimer patients after 2.0 +/- 0.5 years and have described the interval change in amyloid deposition and regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) at follow-up. Sixteen patients with Alzheimer's disease were re-examined by means of PET, using PIB and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) after 2.0 +/- 0.5 years. The patients were all on cholinesterase inhibitor treatment and five also on treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist memantine. In order to estimate the accuracy of the PET PIB measurements, four additional Alzheimer patients underwent repeated examinations with PIB within 20 days (test-retest). Relative PIB retention in cortical regions differed by 3-7% in the test-retest study. No significant difference in PIB retention was observed between baseline and follow-up while a significant (P < 0.01) 20% decrease in rCMRGlc was observed in cortical brain regions. A significant negative correlation between rCMRGlc and PIB retention was observed in the parietal cortex in the Alzheimer patients at follow-up (r = 0.67, P = 0.009). A non-significant decline in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score from 24.3 +/- 3.7 (mean +/- standard deviation) to 22.7 +/- 6.1 was measured at follow-up. Five of the Alzheimer patients showed a significant decline in MMSE score of >3 (21.4 +/- 3.5 to 15.6 +/- 3.9, P < 0.01) (AD-progressive) while the rest of the patients were cognitively more stable (MMSE score = 25.6 +/- 3.1 to 25.9 +/- 3.7) (AD-stable) compared with baseline. A positive correlation (P = 0.001) was observed in the parietal cortex between Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVL) test score and rCMRGlc at follow-up while a negative correlation (P = 0.018) was observed between RAVL test and PIB retention in the parietal at follow-up. Relatively stable PIB retention after 2 years of follow-up in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease suggests that amyloid deposition in the brain reaches a plateau by the early clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease and therefore may precede a decline in rCMRGlc and cognition. It appears that anti-amyloid therapies will need to induce a significant decrease in amyloid load in order for PIB PET images to detect a drug effect in Alzheimer patients. FDG imaging may be able to detect a stabilization of cerebral metabolism caused by therapy administered to patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
  • Forsberg, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • Low background and high contrast PET imaging of amyloid-β with [11C]AZD2995 and [11C]AZD2184 in Alzheimer's disease patients
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer-Verlag New York. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 40:4, s. 580-593
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate AZD2995 side by side with AZD2184 as novel PET radioligands for imaging of amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease (AD).METHODS: In vitro binding of tritium-labelled AZD2995 and AZD2184 was studied and compared with that of the established amyloid-β PET radioligand PIB. Subsequently, a first-in-human in vivo PET study was performed using [(11)C]AZD2995 and [(11)C]AZD2184 in three healthy control subjects and seven AD patients.RESULTS: AZD2995, AZD2184 and PIB were found to share the same binding site to amyloid-β. [(3)H]AZD2995 had the highest signal-to-background ratio in brain tissue from patients with AD as well as in transgenic mice. However, [(11)C]AZD2184 had superior imaging properties in PET, as shown by larger effect sizes comparing binding potential values in cortical regions of AD patients and healthy controls. Nevertheless, probably due to a lower amount of nonspecific binding, the group separation of the distribution volume ratio values of [(11)C]AZD2995 was greater in areas with lower amyloid-β load, e.g. the hippocampus.CONCLUSION: Both AZD2995 and AZD2184 detect amyloid-β with high affinity and specificity and also display a lower degree of nonspecific binding than that reported for PIB. Overall [(11)C]AZD2184 seems to be an amyloid-β radioligand with higher uptake and better group separation when compared to [(11)C]AZD2995. However, the very low nonspecific binding of [(11)C]AZD2995 makes this radioligand potentially interesting as a tool to study minute levels of amyloid-β. This sensitivity may be important in investigating, for example, early prodromal stages of AD or in the longitudinal study of a disease modifying therapy.
  • Forsberg, Anton, et al. (författare)
  • PET imaging of amyloid deposition in patients with mild cognitive impairment
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 29:10, s. 1456-1465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is of great clinical value to identify subjects at a high risk of developing AD. We previously found that the amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer PIB showed a robust difference in retention in the brain between AD patients and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-one patients diagnosed with MCI (mean age 63.3 ± 7.8 (S.D.) years) underwent PET studies with 11C-PIB, and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) to measure cerebral glucose metabolism, as well as assessment of cognitive function and CSF sampling. Reference group data from 27 AD patients and 6 healthy controls, respectively, were used for comparison. The mean cortical PIB retention for the MCI patients was intermediate compared to HC and AD. Seven MCI patients that later at clinical follow-up converted to AD (8.1 ± 6.0 (S.D.) months) showed significant higher PIB retention compared to non-converting MCI patients and HC, respectively (ps < 0.01). The PIB retention in MCI converters was comparable to AD patients (p > 0.01). Correlations were observed in the MCI patients between PIB retention and CSF Aβ1-42, total Tau and episodic memory, respectively.
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