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1.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • Higher Risk of Wheeze in Female than Male Smokers. Results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Women who smoke have higher risk of lung function impairment, COPD and lung cancer than smoking men. An influence of sex hormones has been demonstrated, but the mechanisms are unclear and the associations often subject to confounding. This was a study of wheeze in relation to smoking and sex with adjustment for important confounders. Methods In 2008 the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) questionnaire was mailed to 45.000 Swedes (age 16–75 years), and 26.851 (60%) participated. “Any wheeze”: any wheeze during the last 12 months. “Asthmatic wheeze”: wheeze with breathlessness apart from colds. Results Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze was reported by 17.3% and 7.1% of women, vs. 15.8% and 6.1% of men (both p<0.001). Although smoking prevalence was similar in both sexes, men had greater cumulative exposure, 16.2 pack-years vs. 12.8 in women (p<0.001). Most other exposures and characteristics associated with wheeze were significantly overrepresented in men. Adjusted for these potential confounders and pack-years, current smoking was a stronger risk factor for any wheeze in women aged <53 years, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.85 (1.56–2.19) vs. 1.60 (1.30–1.96) in men. Cumulative smoke exposure and current smoking each interacted significantly with female sex, aOR 1.02 per pack-year (p<0.01) and aOR 1.28 (p = 0.04) respectively. Female compared to male current smokers also had greater risk of asthmatic wheeze, aOR 1.53 vs. 1.03, interaction aOR 1.52 (p = 0.02). These interactions were not seen in age ≥53 years. Discussion In addition to the increased risk of COPD and lung cancer female, compared to male, smokers are at greater risk of significant wheezing symptoms in younger age. This became clearer after adjustment for important confounders including cumulative smoke exposure. Estrogen has previously been shown to increase the bioactivation of several compounds in tobacco smoke, which may enhance smoke-induced airway inflammation in fertile women.
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2.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • The association between asthma and rhinitis is stable over time despite diverging trends in prevalence
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 109:3, s. 312-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite the well-known association between asthma and rhinitis, in Swedish adults the prevalence of rhinitis rose from 22% to 31% between 1990 and 2008 while asthma prevalence was unchanged. We tested whether the association of rhinitis with asthma was stable over time using the same population-based databases. Methods: Two surveys of adults (20-44 years) living in three regions of Sweden, carried out in 1990 (n = 8982) and 2008 (n = 9156) were compared. Identical questions regarding respiratory symptoms, asthma and rhinitis were used. Asthmatic wheeze: Wheeze with breathlessness apart from colds. Current asthma: Asthma attacks and/or asthma medication use. Results: Subjects with rhinitis had level time trends in asthmatic wheeze, current asthma and most nocturnal respiratory symptoms between 1990 and 2008, adjusted for age, sex, area and smoking. Any wheeze however decreased slightly. In never-smokers asthma symptoms were similarly associated with rhinitis in 1990 and 2008: any wheeze OR 4.0 vs. 4.4 (p = 0.339); asthmatic wheeze OR 6.0 vs. 5.9 (p = 0.937); and current asthma OR 9.6 vs. 7.7 (p = 0.213). In the whole population there were decreases in the asthma symptoms most closely associated to smoking, which decreased by half 1990-2008. Conversely current asthma, which was strongly associated with rhinitis and not with smoking, increased (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The association of rhinitis with asthma was stable between 1990 and 2008. The pattern in the time trends of asthma outcomes strongly suggests that decreased smoking counterbalanced the driving effect of increased rhinitis on asthma prevalence. The findings illustrate the public health benefits of decreased smoking. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Forsberg, Bertil; Segerstedt, Bo; Svanberg, Per-Arne,, et al. (författare)
  • En analys av Göteborgs luft över 40 år - halter och dödlighet
  • 2005
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Det primära syftet med detta projekt har varit att insamla, digitalisera och sammanställa historiska data för sot och svaveldioxid från Göteborg, samt att studera korttidshalternas samband med dagligt antal dödsfall. Genom insamlandet av mätresultat från olika arkiv har en samlad digitaliserad databas upprättats, som går tillbaka till 1959, innehållande dygnsdata för sot och svaveldioxid. Under studieperiodens början låg halterna av sot och svaveldioxid i Göteborg liksom på många andra platser i Europa, allmänt 5-10 gånger högre än idag. Under 60-talet var det ganska vanligt med dygnsmedelhalter för sot på över 125 μg/m3 och enstaka dagar låg sothalten över 200 μg/m3. Svaveldioxidhalten kunde under 60-talet som dygnsmedelvärde enstaka dygn uppgå till 500-600 μg/m3. För de epidemiologiska analyserna har bildats fem delperioder huvudsakligen definierade av teknik- och mätplatsbyten för sotmätningarna i Göteborg. Medelvärdet för sot var under de fem delperioderna cirka 39, 22, 14, 8 respektive 6 μg/m3. Dödligheten tycks öka med sothalten främst under den första delperioden, då den kumulativa effekten av halten de senaste 14 dagarna är statistiskt säkerställd, och effekten av halten de senaste 7 respektive 21 dygnen också är nära att vara statistiskt säkerställda.
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4.
  • Garcia-Larsen, V., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of flavonoids and ventilatory function in european adults: A GA2LEN study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - Basel : MDPI AG. - 2072-6643. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. Methods: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA2LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA2LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes’ procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. Results: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a β-coeff 0.33, 0.10, 0.57 and a β-coeff 0.44, 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes’ procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. Conclusions: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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5.
  • Gudnadottir, A. Y., et al. (författare)
  • An investigation on the use of snus and its association with respiratory and sleep-related symptoms: a cross-sectional population study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 7:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Studies of the health effects of moist oral tobacco, snus, have produced inconsistent results. The main objective of this study is to examine the health effects of snus use on asthma, respiratory symptoms and sleep-related problems, a field that has not been investigated before. Methods and material This cross-sectional study was based on a postal questionnaire completed by 26 697 (59.3%) participants aged 16 to 75 years and living in Sweden. The questionnaire included questions on tobacco use, asthma, respiratory symptoms and sleeping problems. The association of snus use with asthma, respiratory symptoms and sleep-related symptoms was mainly tested in never-smokers (n=16 082). Results The current use of snus in never-smokers was associated with an increased risk of asthma (OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.77)), asthmatic symptoms, chronic bronchitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. This association was not present among ex-snus users. Snoring was independently related to both the former and current use of snus ((OR 1.37 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.68)) and (OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.89), respectively)). A higher risk of difficulty inducing sleep was seen among snus users. Conclusion Snus use was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms and snoring. Healthcare professionals should be aware of these possible adverse effects of snus use.
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6.
  • James, A., et al. (författare)
  • Serum periostin relates to type-2 inflammation and lung function in asthma : Data from the large population-based cohort Swedish GA(2)LEN
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 72:11, s. 1753-1760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPeriostin has been suggested as a novel, phenotype-specific biomarker for asthma driven by type 2 inflammation. However, large studies examining relationships between circulating periostin and patient characteristics are lacking and the suitability of periostin as a biomarker in asthma remains unclear.AimTo examine circulating periostin in healthy controls and subjects with asthma from the general population with different severity and treatment profiles, both with and without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), in relation to other biomarkers and clinical characteristics.MethodsSerum periostin was examined by ELISA in 1100 subjects aged 17-76 from the Swedish Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) study, which included 463 asthmatics with/without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), 98 individuals with CRS only, and 206 healthy controls. Clinical tests included measurement of lung function, Fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO), IgE, urinary eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (U-EDN), and serum eosinophil cationic protein (S-ECP), as well as completion of questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms, medication, and quality of life.ResultsAlthough median periostin values showed no differences when comparing disease groups with healthy controls, multiple regression analyses revealed that periostin was positively associated with higher FeNO, U-EDN, and total IgE. In patients with asthma, an inverse relationship with lung function was also observed. Current smoking was associated with decreased periostin levels, whereas increased age and lower body mass index (BMI) related to higher periostin levels in subjects both with and without asthma.ConclusionWe confirm associations between periostin and markers of type 2 inflammation, as well as lung function, and identify novel constitutional factors of importance to the use of periostin as a phenotype-specific biomarker in asthma.
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7.
  • Kampe, M., et al. (författare)
  • Upper airway and skin symptoms in allergic and non-allergic asthma: Results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Asthma. - Abingdon : Taylor & Francis. - 0277-0903 .- 1532-4303. ; 55:3, s. 275-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Allergic and non-allergic asthma are viewed as separate entities, despite sharing similarities. The aims of this study were to determine differences in symptoms from the upper airways and the skin in allergic and non-allergic asthma. The secondary aims were to identify childhood risk factors and to compare quality of life in the two asthma groups. Methods: This cohort (age 17-76years) consisted of 575 subjects with allergic or non-allergic asthma and 219 controls. The participants participated in an interview, spirometry, FeNO, skin prick test, and responded to the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: Self-reported allergic rhinitis was significantly more common in both allergic and non-allergic asthma (82.3 and 40.7%) groups compared with the controls. The prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) was similar in both asthma groups. Eczema was significantly more common in both asthmatic groups (72.3 and 59.8%) than controls (47.0%) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012). Severe respiratory infection in childhood and parental allergy were risk factors for both allergic and non-allergic asthma groups. Quality of life was significantly lower in non-allergic than allergic asthma groups (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Concomitant symptoms from the upper airways and the skin were significantly more common in both allergic and non-allergic asthma. This indicates that non-allergic asthma has a systemic component with similarities to what is found in allergic asthma. There were similarities in the childhood risk factor pattern between the two types of asthma but asthma-related quality of life was lower in the non-allergic asthma group.
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8.
  • Mahdavi, Jafar, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori SabA adhesin in persistent infection and chronic inflammation
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 297:5581, s. 573-578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori adherence in the human gastric mucosa involves specific bacterial adhesins and cognate host receptors. Here, we identify sialyl-dimeric-Lewis x glycosphingolipid as a receptor for H. pylori and show that H. pylori infection induced formation of sialyl-Lewis x antigens in gastric epithelium in humans and in a Rhesus monkey. The corresponding sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA) was isolated with the "retagging" method, and the underlying sabA gene (JHP662/HP0725) was identified. The ability of many H. pylori strains to adhere to sialylated glycoconjugates expressed during chronic inflammation might thus contribute to virulence and the extraordinary chronicity of H. pylori infection.
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9.
  • Makowska, J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe: the global allergy and asthma network (GA(2)LEN) survey
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 71:11, s. 1603-1611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper and lower respiratory tract disorders. MethodsThe GA(2)LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15-74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled. Questionnaires including questions about age, gender, presence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status, and history of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity reactions were sent to participants by mail. Totally, 62 737 participants completed the questionnaires. ResultsThe mean prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants with chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms (Odds Ratio 2.12; 95%CI 1.78-2.74), asthma symptoms in last 12 months (2.7; 2.18-3.35), hospitalization due to asthma (1.53; 1.22-1.99), and adults vs children (1.53; 1.24-1.89), but was not associated with allergic rhinitis. ConclusionOur study documented significant variation between European countries in the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory hypersensitivity reactions, and association with chronic airway diseases, but also with environmental factors.
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10.
  • Mindus, S., et al. (författare)
  • Asthma and COPD overlap (ACO) is related to a high burden of sleep disturbance and respiratory symptoms: Results from the RHINE and Swedish GA(2)LEN surveys
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The term Asthma and COPD Overlap (ACO) describes a condition where asthma and COPD overlap. We aimed to investigate associations between ACO and insomnia and respiratory symptoms, and to investigate the prevalence of ACO and the characteristics of subjects with ACO in two Northern European population studies. The study comprised 25 429 subjects aged >40 years who participated in one of two Northern European general population surveys. Both surveys included questions on asthma, COPD, respiratory and sleep-related symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awakening, and excessive daytime sleepiness. ACO was defined as having both self-reported asthma and COPD. The prevalence of ACO was 1.0%. The group with ACO had a higher prevalence of both insomnia and respiratory symptoms than subjects with only asthma or COPD. Having ACO was independently associated with a 2-3 times higher probability of having sleep-related symptoms as compared with the group without asthma or COPD, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking history and educational level (adjusted odds ratio 2.14-3.36, 95% CI). Subjects with ACO have a high prevalence of insomnia and respiratory symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the association between sleep-related symptoms and ACO.
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