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  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Striatal dopamine D2 binding is related to frontal BOLD response during updating of long-term memory representations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 46:4, s. 1194-1199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multi-modal brain imaging was used to examine the relation between individual differences in resting-state striatal dopamine D2 binding and the magnitude of prefrontal BOLD activation during updating of long-term memory (LTM) representations. Increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex was observed when LTM updating was required, and there was a positive correlation between striatal D2 activity and the magnitude of left prefrontal activity during updating. These findings support predictions from neurocomputational models of a relation of dopaminergic neurotransmission to transient cognitive operations and related brain activity.
  • Ran, C., et al. (författare)
  • Strong association between glucocerebrosidase mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several genetic studies have demonstrated an association between mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA), originally implicated in Gaucher's disease, and an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have investigated the possible involvement of genetic GBA variations in PD in the Swedish population. Three GBA variants, E326K, N370S, and L444P were screened in the largest Swedish Parkinson cohort reported to date; 1625 cases and 2025 control individuals. We found a significant association with high effect size of the rare variant L444P with PD (odds ratio 8.17; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-26.23; p-value = 0.0020) and a significant association of the common variant E326K (odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.22; p-value = 0.026). The rare variant N370S showed a trend for association. Most L444P carriers (68%) were found to reside in northern Sweden, which is consistent with a higher prevalence of Gaucher's disease in this part of the country. Our findings support the role of GBA mutations as risk factors for PD and point to lysosomal dysfunction as a mechanism contributing to PD etiology. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Cedervall, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Injection of embryonic stem cells into scarred rabbit vocal folds enhances healing and improves viscoelasticity : short-term results
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Laryngoscope. - Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0023-852X .- 1531-4995. ; 117:11, s. 2075-2081
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Scarring caused by trauma; postcancer treatment, or inflammation in the vocal folds is associated with stiffness of the lamina propria and results in severe voice problems. Currently there is no effective treatment. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have been recognized as providing a potential resource for cell transplantations, but in the undifferentiated state, they are generally not considered for therapeutic use due to risk of inadvertent development. This study assesses the functional potential of hESC to prevent or diminish scarring and improve viscoelasticity following grafting into scarred rabbit vocal folds.Study Design: hESC were injected into 22 scarred vocal folds of New Zealand rabbits. After 1 month, the vocal folds were dissected and analyzed for persistence of hESC by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human specific probe, and for differentiation by evaluation in hematoxylin-eosin-stained tissues. Parallel-plate rheometry was used to evaluate the functional effects, i.e., viscoelastic properties, after treatment with hESC.Results: The results revealed significantly improved viscoelasticity in the hESC-treated vs. non-treated vocal folds. An average of 5.1% engraftment of human cells was found 1 month after hESC injection. In the hESC-injected folds, development compatible with cartilage, muscle and epithelia in close proximity or inter-mixed with the appropriate native V rabbit tissue was detected in combination with less scarring and improved viscoelasticity.Conclusions: The histology and location of the surviving hESC-derived cells strongly indicate that the functional improvement was caused by the injected cells, which were regenerating scarred tissue. The findings point toward a strong impact from the host microenvironment, resulting in a regional specific in vivo hESC differentiation. and regeneration of three; types of tissue in scarred vocal folds of adult rabbits.
  • Ekman, Urban, et al. (författare)
  • Functional brain activity and presynaptic dopamine uptake in patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment : a cross-sectional study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 11:8, s. 679-687
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many patients with Parkinson's disease have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Deficits in executive functions and working memory suggest dysfunctional frontostriatal brain circuitry. We aimed to assess brain responses during a working memory task in a cohort of newly diagnosed drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease with and without MCI.Methods: Participants were recruited within a prospective cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease. Between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2009, all physicians in the Umea catchment area were requested to refer all individuals with suspected parkinsonism to the Department of Neurology at lima University. Included patients fulfilled the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease. Control individuals were matched on the basis of age and sex with the first 50 patients included in the study. Participants who scored 1.5 SDs or more below the population mean on at least two cognitive measures were diagnosed with MCI. The primary outcome measures were functional MRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal and SPECT presynaptic uptake. Functional MRI was done during a verbal two-back working memory task. Presynaptic dopamine SPECT was done to assess presynaptic striatal dopaminergic system integrity. Event-related transient analyses of functional MRI data were done for the whole brain and for frontostriatal regions of interest, and semi-quantitative SPECT analyses were done for striatal regions of interest.Findings: Compared with controls (n=24), patients with Parkinson's disease (n=77) had under-recruitment in an extensive brain network including bilateral striatal and frontal regions (p<0.001). Within the Parkinson's disease group, patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI (n=30) had additional under-recruitment in the right dorsal caudate nucleus (p=0.005) and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.001) compared with patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI (n=26). In patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI, SPECT uptake in the right caudate was lower than in patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI (p=0.008) and correlated with striatal functional MRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal (r=0.32, p=0.031).Interpretation: These altered brain responses in patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI suggest that cognitive impairment is linked to frontostriatal dysfunction.
  • Ekman, Urban, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience. - : Frontiers. - 1662-4548 .- 1662-453X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson's disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up) compared 28 patients with Parkinson's disease without MCI with 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with MCI under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p < 0.001, uncorrected). Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p < 0.001, uncorrected) was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson's disease and MCI between baseline and follow-up, while patients without MCI were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI. Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson's disease and MCI. The longitudinal evolution of MCI in Parkinson's disease translates into additional task-evoked posterior cortical changes.
  • Sköldenberg, Birgit, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and pathogenesis of clinical relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis in adults.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology. - 0340-5354. ; 253:2, s. 163-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence of relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and to find out whether soluble activity markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indicate direct viral or immune- mediated events. METHODS: A consecutive series of 32 adult survivors of HSE were followed to determine the incidence of clinical relapse of HSE. Four patients had neurological deterioration interpreted as relapsing HSE. Four non-relapsing HSE cases were selected as matched controls. Fifty nine batched, paired CSF and serum samples from the eight HSE patients were analysed for soluble activity markers, predominantly cytokines and mediators (interferon-gamma, soluble CD8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-10), amount of HSV-DNA and markers of glial and neuronal destruction (neurofilament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100-beta, and neuron specific enolase). RESULTS: Relapse of HSE was diagnosed in 3 of 26 (12 %) acyclovir-treated patients (5 episodes during 6.1 years of followup) and in 1 of 6 vidarabine-recipients. All relapses occurred from 1 to 4 months after acute HSE, except for a second relapse after 3.3 years in one patient. Computer tomography at relapses revealed few abnormalities apart from those found during the primary disease. Intravenous acyclovir and corticosteroids were given for 7-21 days in all the relapse patients. All relapse patients seemed to recover to the pre-relapse condition. HSV-DNA was demonstrated in CSF in all patients during the acute stage but not in any of 13 CSF samples taken during relapse phases. The HSV viral load during the acute stage of HSE was not higher or of longer duration in the relapsing patients than in the non-relapsing HSE controls. The levels of sCD8 were increased in nearly all CSF samples tested with peaks of sCD8 at one month of acute HSE. In all episodes of relapse, sCD8 peaks were detected during the first week at high levels. CSF levels of neuron-specific enolase, S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were markedly lower at relapse than at the acute stage of HSV-1 encephalitis. CONCLUSION: The lack of demonstrable HSV DNA in CSF, the lack of acute CSF signs and the lack of signs of neural and glia cells destruction indicate that a direct viral cytotoxicity is not the major pathogenic mechanism in relapse. Instead, the pronounced CSF proinflammatory immunological response and the relative lack of CSF anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 response suggest immunologically-mediated pathogenicity.
  • Yang, Fei, et al. (författare)
  • Moist smokeless tobacco (Snus) use and risk of Parkinson's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 46:3, s. 872-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. It is unclear what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. Use of Swedish moist smokeless tobacco (snus) can serve as a model to disentangle what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether snus use was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease.METHODS: Individual participant data were collected from seven prospective cohort studies, including 348 601 men. We used survival analysis with multivariable Cox regression to estimate study-specific relative risk of Parkinson's disease due to snus use, and random-effects models to pool estimates in a meta-analysis. The primary analyses were restricted to never-smokers to eliminate the potential confounding effect of tobacco smoking.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 16.1 years, 1199 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified. Among men who never smoked, ever-snus users had about 60% lower Parkinson's disease risk compared with never-snus users [pooled hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.61]. The inverse association between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk was more pronounced in current (pooled HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63), moderate-heavy amount (pooled HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.90) and long-term snus users (pooled HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.83).CONCLUSIONS: Non-smoking men who used snus had a substantially lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Results also indicated an inverse dose-response relationship between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk. Our findings suggest that nicotine or other components of tobacco leaves may influence the development of Parkinson's disease.
  • Backstrom, D., et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in dopamine-associated genes and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0001-6314 .- 1600-0404. ; 137:1, s. 91-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesCognitive decline is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying mechanisms for this complication are incompletely understood. Genotypes affecting dopamine transmission may be of importance. This study investigates whether genotypes associated with reduced prefrontal dopaminergic tone and/or reduced dopamine D2-receptor availability (Catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] Val(158)Met genotype and DRD2 (CT)-T-957 genotype) affect the development of cognitive deficits in PD. Materials and methodsOne hundred and 34 patients with idiopathic PD, participating in a regional, population-based study of incident parkinsonism, underwent genotyping. After extensive baseline investigations (including imaging and biomarker analyses), the patients were followed prospectively during 6-10 years with neuropsychological evaluations, covering six cognitive domains. Cognitive decline (defined as the incidence of either Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment [PD-MCI] or dementia [PDD], diagnosed according to published criteria and blinded to genotype) was studied as the primary outcome. ResultsBoth genotypes affected cognition, as shown by Cox proportional hazards models. While the COMT(158)Val/Val genotype conferred an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment in patients with normal cognition at baseline (hazard ratio: 2.13, P=.023), the DRD2(957)T/T genotype conferred an overall increased risk of PD dementia (hazard ratio: 3.22, P<.001). The poorer cognitive performance in DRD2(957)T/T carriers with PD occurred mainly in episodic memory and attention. ConclusionsThe results favor the hypothesis that dopamine deficiency in PD not only relate to mild cognitive deficits in frontostriatal functions, but also to a decline in memory and attention. This could indicate that dopamine deficiency impairs a wide network of brain areas.
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