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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Forster Michael) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Forster Michael)

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1.
  • Ellinghaus, David, et al. (författare)
  • Association between variants of PRDM1 and NDP52 and Crohn's disease, based on exome sequencing and functional studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 145:2, s. 339-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND &amp; AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 140 Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility loci. For most loci, the variants that cause disease are not known and the genes affected by these variants have not been identified. We aimed to identify variants that cause CD through detailed sequencing, genetic association, expression, and functional studies.</p><p>METHODS: We sequenced whole exomes of 42 unrelated subjects with CD and 5 healthy subjects (controls) and then filtered single nucleotide variants by incorporating association results from meta-analyses of CD GWAS and in silico mutation effect prediction algorithms. We then genotyped 9348 subjects with CD, 2868 subjects with ulcerative colitis, and 14,567 control subjects and associated variants analyzed in functional studies using materials from subjects and controls and in vitro model systems.</p><p>RESULTS: We identified rare missense mutations in PR domain-containing 1 (PRDM1) and associated these with CD. These mutations increased proliferation of T cells and secretion of cytokines on activation and increased expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin. A common CD risk allele, identified in GWAS, correlated with reduced expression of PRDM1 in ileal biopsy specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (combined P = 1.6 x 10(-8)). We identified an association between CD and a common missense variant, Val248Ala, in nuclear domain 10 protein 52 (NDP52) (P = 4.83 x 10(-9)). We found that this variant impairs the regulatory functions of NDP52 to inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation of genes that regulate inflammation and affect the stability of proteins in Toll-like receptor pathways.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: We have extended the results of GWAS and provide evidence that variants in PRDM1 and NDP52 determine susceptibility to CD. PRDM1 maps adjacent to a CD interval identified in GWAS and encodes a transcription factor expressed by T and B cells. NDP52 is an adaptor protein that functions in selective autophagy of intracellular bacteria and signaling molecules, supporting the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of CD.</p>
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2.
  • Forster, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic control of antibody production during collagen-induced arthritis development in heterogeneous stock mice
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1529-0131. ; 64:11, s. 3594-3603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To identify genetic factors driving pathogenic autoantibody formation in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in order to better understand the etiology of RA and identify possible new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Methods. We performed a genome-wide analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling autoantibody to type II collagen (anti-CII), anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), and rheumatoid factor (RF). To identify loci controlling autoantibody production, we induced CIA in a heterogeneous stock-derived mouse cohort, with contribution of 8 inbred mouse strains backcrossed to C57BL/10. Q. Serum samples were collected from 1,640 mice before arthritis onset and at the peak of the disease. Antibody concentrations were measured by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and linkage analysis was performed using a linear regression-based method. Results. We identified loci controlling formation of anti-CII of different IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG3), antibodies to major CII epitopes (C1, J1, U1), antibodies to a citrullinated CII peptide (citC1), and RF. The anti-CII, ACPA, and RF responses were all found to be controlled by distinct genes, one of the most important loci being the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Conclusion. This comprehensive genetic analysis of autoantibody formation in CIA demonstrates an association not only of anti-CII, but interestingly also of ACPA and RF, with arthritis development in mice. These results underscore the importance of non-major histocompatibility complex genes in controlling the formation of clinically relevant autoantibodies.
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3.
  • Lincoff, A. Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of delta-protein kinase C by delcasertib as an adjunct to primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the PROTECTION AMI Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - Oxford University Press. - 1522-9645. ; 35:37, s. 2516-2523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Delcasertib is a selective inhibitor of delta-protein kinase C (delta-PKC), which reduced infarct size during ischaemia/reperfusion in animal models and diminished myocardial necrosis and improved reperfusion in a pilot study during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results A multicentre, double-blind trial was performed in patients presenting within 6 h and undergoing primary PCI for anterior (the primary analysis cohort, n = 1010 patients) or inferior (an exploratory cohort, capped at 166 patients) STEMI. Patients with anterior STEMI were randomized to placebo or one of three doses of delcasertib (50,150, or 450 mg/h) by intravenous infusion initiated before PCI and continued for similar to 2.5 h. There were no differences between treatment groups in the primary efficacy endpoint of infarct size measured by creatine kinase MB fraction area under the curve (AUC) (median 5156, 5043, 4419, and 5253 ng h/mL in the placebo, delcasertib 50, 150, and 450 mg/mL groups, respectively) in the anterior STEMI cohort. No treatment-related differences were seen in secondary endpoints of infarct size, electrocardiographic ST-segment recovery AUC or time to stable ST recovery, or left ventricular ejection fraction at 3 months. No differences in rates of adjudicated clinical endpoints (death, heart failure, or serious ventricular arrhythmias) were observed. Conclusions Selective inhibition of delta-PKC with intravenous infusion of delcasertib during PCI for acute STEMI in a population of patients treated according to contemporary standard of care did not reduce biomarkers of myocardial injury.
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4.
  • Petroff, E., et al. (författare)
  • A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 469:4, s. 4465-4482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 +/- 0.8 pc cm(-3), a pulse duration of 2.8(-0.5)(+1.2) ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that the burst was at beam centre of 0.7(-0.1)(+0.2) Jy. The FRB originated at a Galactic longitude and latitude of 24.66 degrees, 5.28 degrees and 25 degrees away from the Galactic Center. The burst was found to be 43 +/- 5 per cent linearly polarized with a rotation measure (RM) in the range -9 &lt; RM &lt; 12 rad m(-2) (95 per cent confidence level), consistent with zero. The burst was followed up with 11 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, gamma-ray and neutrino emission. Neither transient nor variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in 17.25 h of observing. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the observed physical properties of FRB 150215 demonstrate the existence of sight lines of anomalously low RM for a given electron column density. The Galactic RM foreground may approach a null value due to magnetic field reversals along the line of sight, a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way, or some combination of these effects. A lower Galactic DM contribution might explain why this burst was detectable whereas previous searches at low latitude have had lower detection rates than those out of the plane.</p>
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5.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Gamma-ray blazar spectra with HESS II mono analysis : The case of PKS2155-304 and PG1553+113
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - The European Southern Observatory (ESO). - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 600
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context. The addition of a 28 m Cherenkov telescope (CT5) to the H.E.S.S. array extended the experiment's sensitivity to lower energies. The lowest energy threshold is obtained using monoscopic analysis of data taken with CT5, providing access to gamma-ray energies below 100 GeV for small zenith angle observations. Such an extension of the instrument's energy range is particularly beneficial for studies of active galactic nuclei with soft spectra, as expected for those at a redshift &gt;= 0.5. The high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) and PG 1553 + 113 (0.43 &lt; z &lt; 0.58) are among the brightest objects in the gamma-ray sky, both showing clear signatures of gamma-ray absorption at E &gt; 100 GeV interpreted as being due to interactions with the extragalactic background light (EBL). Aims. The aims of this work are twofold: to demonstrate the monoscopic analysis of CT5 data with a low energy threshold, and to obtain accurate measurements of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of PKS 2155-304 and PG 1553 + 113 near their SED peaks at energies approximate to 100 GeV. Methods. Multiple observational campaigns of PKS 2155 304 and PG 1553 + 113 were conducted during 2013 and 2014 using the full H.E.S.S. II instrument (CT1-5). A monoscopic analysis of the data taken with the new CT5 telescope was developed along with an investigation into the systematic uncertainties on the spectral parameters which are derived from this analysis. Results. Using the data from CT5, the energy spectra of PKS 2155 304 and PG 1553 + 113 were reconstructed down to conservative threshold energies of 80 GeV for PKS 2155 304, which transits near zenith, and 110 GeV for the more northern PG 1553 + 113. The measured spectra, well fitted in both cases by a log-parabola spectral model ( with a 5.0 similar to statistical preference for non-zero curvature for PKS 2155 304 and 4.5 sigma for PG 1553+113), were found consistent with spectra derived from contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data, indicating a sharp break in the observed spectra of both sources at E approximate to 100 GeV. When corrected for EBL absorption, the intrinsic H.E.S.S. II mono and Fermi-LAT spectrum of PKS 2155 304 was found to show significant curvature. For PG 1553+113, however, no significant detection of curvature in the intrinsic spectrum could be found within statistical and systematic uncertainties.</p>
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6.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • HESS discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from PKS 0625-354
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 476:3, s. 4187-4198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>PKS 0625-354 (z = 0.055) was observed with the four High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescopes in 2012 during 5.5 h. The source was detected above an energy threshold of 200 GeV at a significance level of 6.1 sigma. No significant variability is found in these observations. The source is well described with a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 2.84 +/- 0.50(stat) +/- 0.10(syst) and normalization (at E-0 = 1.0 TeV) N-0(E-0)=(0.58 +/- 0.22(stat) +/- 0.12(syst)) x 10(-12) TeV-1 cm(-2) s(-1). Multiwavelength data collected with Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, ATOM and WISE are also analysed. Significant variability is observed only in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray and Swift-XRT X-ray energy bands. Having a good multiwavelength coverage from radio to very high energy, we performed a broad-band modelling from two types of emission scenarios. The results from a one zone lepto-hadronic and a multizone leptonic models are compared and discussed. On the grounds of energetics, our analysis favours a leptonic multizone model. Models associated to the X-ray variability constraint support previous results, suggesting a BL Lac nature of PKS 0625-354 with, however, a large-scale jet structure typical of a radio galaxy.</p>
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7.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term monitoring of PKS2155-304 with ATOM and HESS:investigation of optical/gamma-ray correlations in different spectral states
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy gamma-ray (&gt; 200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy gamma-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states, and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy gamma-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which seem to be related to distinct gamma-ray states of the blazar. The obtained results therefore indicate a complex scaling between the optical and gamma-ray emission of PKS 2155 304, with different correlation patterns holding at different epochs, and a gamma-ray flux depending on the combination of an optical flux and colour rather than a flux alone.</p>
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8.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution mapping of a complex disease, a model for rheumatoid arthritis, using heterogeneous stock mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 20:15, s. 3031-3041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resolving the genetic basis of complex diseases like rheumatoid arthritis will require knowledge of the corresponding diseases in experimental animals to enable translational functional studies. Mapping of quantitative trait loci in mouse models of arthritis, such as collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), using F-2 crosses has been successful, but can resolve loci only to large chromosomal regions. Using an inbred-outbred cross design, we identified and fine-mapped CIA loci on a genome-wide scale. Heterogeneous stock mice were first intercrossed with an inbred strain, B10.Q, to introduce an arthritis permitting MHCII haplotype. Homozygous H2(q) mice were then selected to set up an F-3 generation with fixed major histocompatibility complex that was used for arthritis experiments. We identified 26 loci, 18 of which are novel, controlling arthritis traits such as incidence of disease, severity and time of onset and fine-mapped a number of previously mapped loci.
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9.
  • Borgatti, Antonella, et al. (författare)
  • Safe and Effective Sarcoma Therapy through Bispecific Targeting of EGFR and uPAR.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. - 1535-7163 .- 1538-8514. ; 16:5, s. 956-965
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Sarcomas differ from carcinomas in their mesenchymal origin. Therapeutic advancements have come slowly so alternative drugs and models are urgently needed. These studies report a new drug for sarcomas that simultaneously targets both tumor and tumor neovasculature. eBAT is a bispecific angiotoxin consisting of truncated, deimmunized Pseudomonas exotoxin fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the amino terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase. Here, we study the drug in an in vivo "ontarget" companion dog trial since eBAT effectively kills canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and human sarcoma cells in vitro. We reasoned the model has value due to the common occurrence of spontaneous sarcomas in dogs and a limited lifespan allowing for rapid accrual and data collection. Splenectomized dogs with minimal residual disease were given one cycle of eBAT followed by adjuvant doxorubicin in an adaptive dose-finding, phase I-II study of 23 dogs with spontaneous, stage I-II, splenic HSA. eBAT improved 6-month survival from &lt;40% in a comparison population to ~70% in dogs treated at a biologically active dose (50 µg/kg). Six dogs were long-term survivors, living &gt;450 days. eBAT abated expected toxicity associated with EGFR-targeting, a finding supported by mouse studies. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and EGFR are targets for human sarcomas, so thorough evaluation is crucial for validation of the dog model. Thus, we validated these markers for human sarcoma targeting in the study of 212 human and 97 canine sarcoma samples. Our results support further translation of eBAT for human patients with sarcomas and perhaps other EGFR-expressing malignancies.</p>
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10.
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