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Sökning: WFRF:(Foukakis Theodoros)

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  • Karakatsanis, A., et al. (författare)
  • Axillary evaluation in ductal cancer in situ of the breast: challenging the diagnostic accuracy of clinical practice guidelines
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 0007-1323 .- 1365-2168. ; 108:9, s. 1120-1125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Staging of the axilla is not routine in ductal cancer in situ (DCIS) although invasive cancer is observed in 20-25 per cent of patients at final pathology. Upfront sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is advocated in clinical practice guidelines in certain situations. These include expected challenges in subsequent SLN detection and when the risk for invasion is high. Clinical practice guidelines are, however, inconsistent and lead to considerable practice variability. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines for upfront SLND in DCIS were identified and applied to patients included in the prospective SentiNot study. These patients were evaluated by six independent, blinded raters. Agreement statistics were performed to assess agreement and concordance. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, to assess guideline accuracy in identifying patients with underlying invasion. Results: Eight guidelines with relevant recommendations were identified. Interobserver agreement varied greatly (kappa: 0.23-0.9) and the interpretation as to whether SLND should be performed ranged from 40-90 per cent and with varying concordance (32-88 per cent). The diagnostic accuracy was low with area under the curve ranging from 0.45 to 0.55. Fifty to 90 per cent of patients with pure DCIS would undergo unnecessary SLNB, whereas 10-50 per cent of patients with invasion were not identified as 'high risk'. Agreement across guidelines was low (kappa=0.24), meaning that different patients had a similar risk of being treated inaccurately. Conclusion: Available guidelines are inaccurate in identifying patients with DCIS who would benefit from upfront SLNB. Guideline refinement with detailed preoperative work-up and novel techniques for SLND identification could address this challenge and avoid overtreatment.
  • Tobin, N. P., et al. (författare)
  • An Endothelial Gene Signature Score Predicts Poor Outcome in Patients with Endocrine-Treated, Low Genomic Grade Breast Tumors
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 22:10, s. 2417-2426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The ability of vascular genes to provide treatment predictive information in breast cancer patients remains unclear. As such, we assessed the expression of genes representative of normal endothelial microvasculature (MV) in relation to treatment-specific patient subgroups. Experimental Design: We used expression data from 993 breast tumors to assess 57 MV genes (summarized to yield an MV score) as well as the genomic grade index (GGI) and PAM50 signatures. MV score was compared with CD31 staining by correlation and gene ontology (GO) analysis, along with clinicopathologic characteristics and PAM50 subtypes. Uni-, multivariate, and/or t-test analyses were performed in all and treatment-specific subgroups, along with a clinical trial cohort of patients with metastatic breast cancer, seven of whom received antiangiogenic therapy. Results: MV score did not correlate with microvessel density (correlation = 0.096), but displayed enrichment for angiogenic GO terms, and was lower in Luminal B tumors. In endocrine-treated patients, a high MV score was associated with decreased risk of metastasis [HR 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.89], even after adjusting for histologic grade, but not GGI or PAM50. Subgroup analysis showed the prognostic strength of the MV score resided in low genomic grade tumors and MV score was significantly increased in metastatic breast tumors after treatment with sunitinib + docetaxel (P = 0.031). Conclusions: MV score identifies two groups of better and worse survival in low-risk endocrine-treated breast cancer patients. We also show normalization of tumor vasculature on a transcriptional level in response to an angiogenic inhibitor in human breast cancer samples. (C) 2016 AACR.
  • Bergh, Jonas C. S., et al. (författare)
  • Docetaxel, trastuzumab, pertuzumab versus trastuzumab emtansine as neoadjuvant treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer : results from the Swedish PREDIX HER2 trial identifying a new potential de-escalation standard?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 37:15, s. 501-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Neoadjuvant therapy produces high rates of pathological complete response (pCR) and is the standard of care in HER2 positive breast cancer; however, the optimal treatment regimen remains to be established. Methods: In this randomized phase II study patients ≥18 years with HER2 positive breast cancer > 20mm or verified lymph node metastases were randomized to 6 courses of docetaxel, trastuzumab and pertuzumab (DTP, group A) or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, group B), q 21 days. The protocol allowed switch to the competing treatment upon lack of response or drug-related severe toxicity. Patients received postoperative epirubicin+cyclophosphamide, trastuzumab for a total of one year and endocrine therapy. Accrual was completed in October 2018 after randomization of 202 patients, data on pCR were available for 190 at the time for this abstract submission. Median age, 52 years (26-74), menopausal status, histological type and grade were well balanced between the treatment groups. 62.6% of the tumors were hormone receptor (HR) positive. Results: Primary endpoint was pathological objective response. 190 patients completed the protocol-specified preoperative treatment. pCR was achieved in 45.3% of patients, 46.4% in patients treated with DTP and 44.1% with T-DM1 (chi-sq., p = 0.75). In HR-positive tumors, pCR was obtained in 35.3% of patients, 35.9% in group A vs. 34.6% in group B (p = 0.87); in HR-negative tumors, the overall pCR rate was 62.0%, 66.7% in group A vs. 57.9% in group B (p = 0.45). Severe (grade 3/4) toxicity was reported at 68 occasions related to DTP, compared with 16 related to T-DM1, 26 vs. 3 caused by febrile neutropenia. Significantly better quality of life was reported by patients treated with T-DM1. Conclusions: Our data on TDM-1 demonstrates similar efficacy and less toxicity, in particular for patients with HER2 and HR positive cancers, being a potential new standard for neoadjuvant therapy. Clinical trial information: NCT02568839.
  • Boman, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Discordance of PD-L1 status between primary and metastatic breast cancer : A systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cancer Treatment Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0305-7372 .- 1532-1967. ; 99
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is predictive for benefit from immunotherapy in several human malignancies including triple negative breast cancer. Lower positivity rates but a larger relative benefit from atezolizumab has been implied when PD-L1 status is assessed at metastatic sites. We aimed to study the discordance of PD-L1 expression between primary tumor and metastasis in breast cancer due to its potential clinical utility.METHODS: Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and Web of science were searched for studies reporting on PD-L1 expression in primary and metastatic breast cancer, followed by data extraction. Outcomes included pooled PD-L1 positivity rates in tumor cells, immune cells or both in primary tumor and metastasis, PD-L1 discordance between matched primary tumors and metastasis and direction of discordance.RESULTS: Of 2552 identified entries following de-duplication, 20 studies fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Pooled PD-L1 positivity rate was higher in primary tumors compared to metastasis when assessed in immune cells (51.2% vs 37.1% p < 0.001) and tumor/immune cells (30.1% vs 14.6% p < 0.001), but not in tumor cells (18.7% vs 17.8% p = 0.65). PD-L1 positivity was lowest when assessed in bone metastases (12%) and highest in lymph nodes (60%). Discordance between primary tumors and metastasis was bidirectional, with higher pooled discordance rates when PD-L1 expression was assessed in immune compared to tumor cells (39.5% vs 13.6%, p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: The observed considerable discordance between PD-L1 status in primary and metastatic breast cancer emphasizes the importance of appropriate tissue sampling when selecting patients for immunotherapy.
  • Brandberg, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life in the Swedish PREDIX HER2 trial, evaluating docetaxel, trastuzumab, pertuzumab versus trastuzumab emtansine as neoadjuvant treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 37:15, s. 583-583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Neoadjuvant therapy combining docetaxel, trastuzumab and pertuzumab (DTP) was compared to trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in the randomized phase 2 PREDIX HER2 trial. Patients, ≥18 years with HER2 positive breast cancer, ≥20mm or with verified lymph node metastases, were randomized to six courses of DTP (Standard arm) or T-DM1 (Experimental arm). Primary endpoint was pathological objective response to primary medical therapy at post-treatment surgery. Health related quality of life (HRQoL) was a secondary outcome, and is of specific interest as there was no difference between the randomization groups regarding the main endpoint (results presented in a separate abstract sent to ASCO 2019, Bergh et al.). Methods: Of 202 randomized patients, 190 are available for evaluation at this point. HRQoL was measured, using EORTC QLQ-C30 + EORTC QLQ-BR23, at baseline before randomization and after six courses. Results: No differences between the randomization arms were found at baseline. Results after six courses, based on 163 patients (86%) and adjusted to baseline values, revealed statistical significant differences (p≤0.01), favoring the experimental T-DM1 arm on 7 out of 15 of the EORTC QLQ-C30 variables (Physical functioning, Role functioning, Social functioning, Global quality of Life, Fatigue, Dyspnea, and Diarrhea). For the breast cancer specific questionnaire (EORTC-BR23), the experimental arm scored statistically significantly better on 5 out of 7 subscales (Body image, Sexual functioning, Sexual enjoyment, Systemic therapy side effects and Upset by hair loss). All of the statistical significant differences were of moderate or large clinical significance (≥10 scale scores). No differences between the randomization arms were found for the remaining HRQoL variables. Conclusions: The experimental arm reported better HRQoL than the control arm after six courses. Trastuzumab emtansine may be a useful treatment alternative due to better HRQoL and lower toxicity. Clinical trial information: NCT02568839.
  • Eriksson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Benefit of pazopanib in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours: results from a phase II trial (SSG XXI, PAGIST)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: ESMO Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2059-7029. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) resistant to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and sunitinib may be treated with regorafenib, which resulted in a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.8 months in the GRID trial. Also, pazopanib, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (PAZOGIST) in the third line, which showed a PFS of 45.2% 4 months after study entry, but patients intolerant to sunitinib were also included. We designed another trial evaluating pazopanib, enrolling only patients with progression on both imatinib and sunitinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Since all eligible patients had progressive disease, we preferred a non-randomized, phase II multicentre trial so that all patients could receive a potentially active drug. Patients had a progressive metastatic or locally advanced GIST and were ≥18 years of age, with a performance status of 0-2, and sufficient organ functions. The primary endpoint was disease control rate (defined as complete remission + partial remission + stable disease) at 12 weeks on pazopanib. A Simon's two-stage analysis was used with an interim analysis 12 weeks after enrollment of the first 22 patients, and if passed, there was a full enrolment of 72 patients. GIST mutational analysis was done, and most patients had pazopanib plasma concentration measured after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were enrolled. The disease control rate after 12 weeks was 44%, and the median PFS was 19.6 weeks (95% confidence interval 12.6-23.4 weeks). Pazopanib-related toxicity was moderate and manageable. No statistically significant differences were found related to mutations. Plasma concentrations of pazopanib had a formal but weak correlation with outcome. CONCLUSION: Pazopanib given in the third line to patients with GIST progressing on both imatinib and sunitinib was beneficial for about half of the patients. The PAGIST trial confirms the results from the PAZOGIST trial, and the median PFS achieved seems comparable to the PFS achieved with regorafenib in the third-line setting.
  • Foukakis, Theodoros, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy vs standard 3-weekly adjuvant chemotherapy on recurrence-free survival among women with high-risk early breast cancer : A randomized clinical trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484. ; 316:18, s. 1888-1896
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area results in marked interpatient variation in pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, and efficacy.Whether tailored dosing can improve outcomes is unknown, as is the role of dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE To determine whether tailored dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy improves the outcomes of early breast cancer compared with a standard 3-weekly chemotherapy schedule. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial ofwomen aged 65 years and younger who had surgery for nonmetastatic node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer at 86 sites in Sweden, Germany, and Austria between February 20, 2007, and September 14, 2011. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized 1:1 either to 4 cycles of leukocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense adjuvant epirubicin and cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by 4 cycles of tailored dose-dense docetaxel every 2 weeks, or to standard-interval chemotherapy with 3 cycles of fluorouracil and epirubicin-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel every 3 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end pointwas breast cancer recurrence-free survival (BCRFS). Secondary end points included 5-year event-free survival (EFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), overall survival (OS), and rates of grade 3 or 4 toxic effects. RESULTS Among 2017 randomized patients (1006 in the tailored dose-dense group and 1011 in the control group; median [IQR] age, 51 [45-58] years; 80% with hormone receptor-positive tumors; 97%with node-positive disease), 2000 received study treatment (1 cycle of chemotherapy; 1001 in the tailored dose-dense group and 999 in the control group). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 4.5-6.1 years), 269 BCRFS events were reported, 118 in the tailored dose-dense group and 151 in the control group (HR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.61-1.01; log-rank P =.06; 5-year BCRFS, 88.7%vs 85.0%). The tailored dose-dense group had significantly better EFS than the control group (HR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.99; P =.04; 5-year EFS, 86.7%vs 82.1%). The groups did not differ in OS (HR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.57-1.05; P =.09; 5-year OS, 92.1% vs 90.2%) or DDFS (HR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.64-1.08; P =.17; 5-year DDFS, 89.4%vs 86.7%). Grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxic effects occurred in 527 (52.6%) in the tailored dose-dense group and 366 (36.6%) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among women with high-risk early breast cancer, the use of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy compared with standard adjuvant chemotherapy did not result in a statistically significant improvement in breast cancer recurrence-free survival. Nonhematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the tailored dose-dense group. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00798070; isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN39017665.
  • Foukakis, Theodoros, et al. (författare)
  • Immune gene expression and response to chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 118:4, s. 480-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Transcriptomic profiles have shown promise as predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC). This study aimed to explore their predictive value in the advanced BC (ABC) setting.Methods:In a Phase 3 trial of first-line chemotherapy in ABC, a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was obtained at baseline. Intrinsic molecular subtypes and gene modules related to immune response, proliferation, oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling and recurring genetic alterations were analysed for association with objective response to chemotherapy. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of responders vs non-responders was performed independently. Lymphocytes were enumerated in FNAB smears and the absolute abundance of immune cell types was calculated using the Microenvironment Cell Populations counter method.Results:Gene expression data were available for 109 patients. Objective response to chemotherapy was statistically significantly associated with an immune module score (odds ratio (OR)=1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.64; P=0.04). Subgroup analysis showed that this association was restricted to patients with ER-positive or luminal tumours (OR=3.54; 95%, 1.43-10.86; P=0.012 and P for interaction=0.04). Gene-set enrichment analysis confirmed that in these subgroups, immune-related gene sets were enriched in responders.Conclusions:Immune-related transcriptional signatures may predict response to chemotherapy in ER-positive and luminal ABC.
  • Hatschek, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, and Docetaxel vs Trastuzumab Emtansine in Patients With ERBB2-Positive Breast Cancer : A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 7:9, s. 1360-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is presently approved for treatment of advanced breast cancer and after incomplete response to neoadjuvant therapy, but the potential of T-DM1 as monotherapy is so far unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess pathologic complete response (pCR) to standard neoadjuvant therapy of combination docetaxel, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab (DTP) vs T-DM1 monotherapy in patients with ERBB2 (formerly HER2)-positive breast cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This randomized phase 2 trial, conducted at 9 sites in Sweden, enrolled 202 patients between December 1, 2014, and October 31, 2018. Participants were 18 years or older, with ERBB2-positive tumors larger than 20 mm and/or verified lymph node metastases. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive 6 cycles of DTP (standard group) or T-DM1 (investigational group). Crossover was recommended at lack of response or occurrence of intolerable toxic effects. Assessment with fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) was performed at baseline and after 2 and 6 treatment cycles. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Pathologic complete response, defined as ypT0 or Tis ypN0. Secondary end points were clinical and radiologic objective response; event-free survival, invasive disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, and overall survival; safety; health-related quality of life (HRQoL); functional and biological tumor characteristics; and frequency of breast-conserving surgery. RESULTS Overall, 202 patients were randomized; 197 (99 women in the standard group [median age, 51 years (range, 26-73 years)] and 98 women in the investigational group [median age, 53 years (range, 28-74 years)]) were evaluable for the primary end point. Pathologic complete response was achieved in 45 patients in the standard group (45.5%; 95% CI 35.4%-55.8%) and 43 patients in the investigational group (43.9%; 95% CI 33.9%-54.3%). The difference was not statistically significant (P = .82). In a subgroup analysis, the pCR rate was higher in hormone receptor-negative tumors than in hormone receptor-positive tumors in both treatment groups (45 of 72 [62.5%] vs 45 of 125 [36.0%]). Three patients in the T-DM1 group experienced progression during therapy. In an exploratory analysis, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes at 10% or more (median) estimated pCR significantly (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.42-5.36; P = .003). Response evaluation with F-18-FDG PET-CT revealed a relative decrease of maximum standardized uptake value by more than 31.3% (median) was associated with pCR (odds ratio, 6.67, 95% CI, 2.38-20.00; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this study, treatment with standard neoadjuvant combination DTP was equal to T-DM1.
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