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Sökning: WFRF:(Frisen Louise)

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  • Bejerot, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • The Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (BOCS): A self-report scale for OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nordic journal of psychiatry. - 1502-4725. ; 68:8, s. 549-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children's version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date. Aim: The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population. Method: The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category "Obsessive-compulsive related disorders", accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive-compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS. Results: Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled "Symmetry", "Forbidden thoughts", "Contamination", "Magical thoughts" and "Dysmorphic thoughts". The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62-70% Cronbach's alpha = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75-84%, Cronbach's alpha = 0.94). Conclusions: The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry.
  • Hukic, Dzana Sudic, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive Manic Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Associated with Polymorphisms in the DAOA and COMT Genes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Bipolar disorder is characterized by severe mood symptoms including major depressive and manic episodes. During manic episodes, many patients show cognitive dysfunction. Dopamine and glutamate are important for cognitive processing, thus the COMT and DAOA genes that modulate the expression of these neurotransmitters are of interest for studies of cognitive function. Methodology: Focusing on the most severe episode of mania, a factor was found with the combined symptoms of talkativeness, distractibility, and thought disorder, considered a cognitive manic symptoms (CMS) factor. 488 patients were genotyped, out of which 373 (76%) had talkativeness, 269 (55%) distractibility, and 372 (76%) thought disorder. 215 (44%) patients were positive for all three symptoms, thus showing CMS (Table 1). As population controls, 1,044 anonymous blood donors (ABD) were used. Case-case and case-control design models were used to investigate genetic associations between cognitive manic symptoms in bipolar 1 disorder and SNPs in the COMT and DAOA genes. Results: The finding of this study was that cognitive manic symptoms in patients with bipolar 1 disorder was associated with genetic variants in the DAOA and COMT genes. Nominal association for DAOA SNPs and COMT SNPs to cognitive symptoms factor in bipolar 1 disorder was found in both allelic (Table 2) and haplotypic (Table 3) analyses. Genotypic association analyses also supported our findings. However, only one association, when CMS patients were compared to ABD controls, survived correction for multiple testing by max (T) permutation. Data also suggested interaction between SNPs rs2391191 in DAOA and rs5993883 in COMT in the case-control model. Conclusion: Identifying genes associated with cognitive functioning has clinical implications for assessment of prognosis and progression. Our finding are consistent with other studies showing genetic associations between the COMT and DAOA genes and impaired cognition both in psychiatric disorders and in the general population.
  • Amare, Azmeraw T, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Polygenic Score for Schizophrenia and HLA Antigen and Inflammation Genes With Response to Lithium in Bipolar Affective Disorder: A Genome-Wide Association Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - 2168-6238. ; 75:1, s. 65-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lithium is a first-line mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). However, the efficacy of lithium varies widely, with a nonresponse rate of up to 30%. Biological response markers are lacking. Genetic factors are thought to mediate treatment response to lithium, and there is a previously reported genetic overlap between BPAD and schizophrenia (SCZ).To test whether a polygenic score for SCZ is associated with treatment response to lithium in BPAD and to explore the potential molecular underpinnings of this association.A total of 2586 patients with BPAD who had undergone lithium treatment were genotyped and assessed for long-term response to treatment between 2008 and 2013. Weighted SCZ polygenic scores were computed at different P value thresholds using summary statistics from an international multicenter genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36 989 individuals with SCZ and genotype data from patients with BPAD from the Consortium on Lithium Genetics. For functional exploration, a cross-trait meta-GWAS and pathway analysis was performed, combining GWAS summary statistics on SCZ and response to treatment with lithium. Data analysis was performed from September 2016 to February 2017.Treatment response to lithium was defined on both the categorical and continuous scales using the Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder score. The effect measures include odds ratios and the proportion of variance explained.Of the 2586 patients in the study (mean [SD] age, 47.2 [13.9] years), 1478 were women and 1108 were men. The polygenic score for SCZ was inversely associated with lithium treatment response in the categorical outcome, at a threshold P < 5 × 10-2. Patients with BPAD who had a low polygenic load for SCZ responded better to lithium, with odds ratios for lithium response ranging from 3.46 (95% CI, 1.42-8.41) at the first decile to 2.03 (95% CI, 0.86-4.81) at the ninth decile, compared with the patients in the 10th decile of SCZ risk. In the cross-trait meta-GWAS, 15 genetic loci that may have overlapping effects on lithium treatment response and susceptibility to SCZ were identified. Functional pathway and network analysis of these loci point to the HLA antigen complex and inflammatory cytokines.This study provides evidence for a negative association between high genetic loading for SCZ and poor response to lithium in patients with BPAD. These results suggest the potential for translational research aimed at personalized prescribing of lithium.
  • Backlund, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive manic symptoms associated with the P2RX7 gene in bipolar disorder.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Bipolar disorders. - 1399-5618. ; 13:5-6, s. 500-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Several genetic loci have been suggested to be associated with bipolar disorder but results have been inconsistent. Studying associations between bipolar symptoms and candidate genes may better expose this relationship. Here we investigate the association between bipolar key symptoms and the P2RX7 gene. Methods: Key symptoms of mania were rated in two sets of medicated bipolar disorder patients (n = 171 and n = 475) at two specialized outpatient clinics for affective disorders and three regular psychiatric outpatient units in Sweden. The relationships between all manic symptoms according to DSM-IV were entered in a principal component analysis. We used a case-case model to reduce the genetic heterogeneity and tested associations between four factors related to manic symptoms and their association to four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2RX7 gene. Results: The combination of the cognitive symptoms, distractibility, talkativeness, and thought disorder was significantly associated with rs1718119 in the P2RX7 gene in Set 1 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78; p = 0.011]. The association was re-tested in the second set (OR = 1.42; p = 0.009). In the total sample, the association was even stronger (OR = 1.49; p < 0.001). None of the other factors was associated with the P2RX7 gene. Within the first factor, the distractibility symptom accounted for a significant portion of the association to rs1718119 (p = 0.016). Conclusion: There is an association between specific symptoms of bipolar disorder and the P2RX7 gene. This finding may open up new approaches to elucidating the neurobiology behind bipolar symptoms.
  • Butwicka, Agnieszka, et al. (författare)
  • Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. - 1469-7610. ; 56:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind a possible association, we also studied psychiatric outcomes among brothers of the hypospadias patients. METHODS: Registry study within a national cohort of all 9,262 males with hypospadias and their 4,936 healthy brothers born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Patients with hypospadias and their brothers were matched with controls by year of birth and county. The following outcomes were evaluated (1) any psychiatric (2) psychotic, (3) mood, (4) anxiety, (5) eating, and (6) personality disorders, (7) substance misuse, (8) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (9) autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (10) intellectual disability, and (11) other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood. RESULTS: Patients with hypospadias were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.8-3.8), ASD (1.4; 1.2-1.7), ADHD (1.5; 1.3-1.9), and behavioral/emotional disorders (1.4; 1.2-1.6) compared with the controls. Brothers of patients with hypospadias had an increased risk of ASD (1.6; 1.3-2.1) and other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood (1.2; 0.9-1.5) in comparison to siblings of healthy individuals. A slightly higher, although not statistically significant, risk was found for intellectual disability (1.3; 1.0-1.9). No relation between other psychiatric diagnosis and hypospadias was found. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in patients with hypospadias, as well as an increased risk for ASD in their brothers, suggesting a common familial (genetic and/or environmental) liability.
  • Butwicka, A., et al. (författare)
  • Increased Risk for Substance Use-Related Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - 1573-3432. ; 47:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD. Further, risks of substance use-related problems were increased among full siblings of ASD probands, half-siblings and parents. We conclude that ASD is a risk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevated risks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest shared familial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.
  • Butwicka, Agnieszka, et al. (författare)
  • Risks of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes : : a population-based cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes care. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0149-5992. ; 9.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To assess the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts in children with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings. Research Design and Methods We performed a population-based case cohort study of individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Children with type 1 diabetes (n=17,122) and their healthy siblings (n=18,847) were identified and followed until their 18th birthday. Their risk of psychiatric disorders was compared with matched controls. Results The risk of psychiatric morbidity in children with type 1 diabetes compared to the general population was tripled within 6 months after the onset of diabetes (hazard ratio, HR 3.0, 95% confidence interval, CI 2.7-3.4) and doubled within the total observation period (HR 2.1, CI 2.0-2.2). An increased risk was noted in suicide attempts (HR 1.7, CI 1.4-2.0) and in most categories of psychiatric disorders. The risk of psychiatric disorders in probands declined from HR 2.7 (CI 2.2-3.3) for those in the cohort born 1973-1986 to 1.9 (CI 1.8-2.0) in those born 1997-2009. The risk for any psychiatric disorders among siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be HR 1.1 (CI 1.0-1.1) and there was no increased risk in any of the specific category of disorders. Conclusions Children with type 1 diabetes are at high risk of psychiatric disorders, which seems to be a consequence of the disease rather than due to a common familial etiology. The results support recommendations on comprehensive mental health surveillance in children with type 1 diabetes, especially in recently diagnosed children.
  • Engberg, Hedvig, et al. (författare)
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and risk for psychiatric disorders in girls and women born between 1915 and 2010: A total population study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 1873-3360. ; 60, s. 195-205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a chronic condition and individuals are exposed to elevated androgen levels in utero as a result of the endogenous cortisol deficiency. Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to influence mental health, but population based studies on psychiatric morbidity among girls and women with CAH are lacking. Therefore, we performed a cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers linked with the national CAH register. Girls and women with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n=335) born between January 1915 and January 2010 were compared with aged-matched female (n=33500) and male controls (n=33500). Analyses were stratified by phenotype [salt wasting (SW), simple virilizing (SV), and non-classical type (NC)] and by CYP21A2 genotype subgroups (null, I2splice, I172N, and P30L). Results are presented as estimated risks (OR, 95%CI) of psychiatric disorders among girls and women with CAH compared with age-matched controls. Any psychiatric diagnoses were more common in CAH females compared with female and male population controls [1.9 (1.4-2.5), and 2.2 (1.7-2.9)]. In particular, the risk of alcohol misuse was increased compared with female and male population controls [2.8 (1.7-4.7) and 2.1 (1.2-3.5)], and appeared most common among the girls and women with the most severe null genotype [6.7 (2.6-17.8)]. The risk of stress and adjustment disorders was doubled compared with female population controls [2.1 (1.3-3.6)]. Girls and women with CAH have an increased risk of psychiatric disorders in general and substance use disorders in particular compared with unexposed females, with the highest risk among those with the most severe genotype. Prenatal androgen exposure and deficient endogenous cortisol and/or adrenaline production may provide explanations for these findings, but other factors related to CAH cannot be excluded.
  • Falhammar, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Increased psychiatric morbidity in men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 99:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context:Reports on psychiatric morbidity in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are lacking.Objective:To study psychiatric disorders in CAH males.Design, Setting and Participants:We studied males with CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, n=253; CYP21A2 mutations known, n=185), and compared them with controls (n=25300). Data were derived through linkage of national population-based registers. We assessed the subgroups of CYP21A2 genotype separately (null, I2splice, I172N, P30L and NC), as well as outcomes before and after the introduction of national neonatal screening in 1986.Main Outcome Measures:Psychiatric disorders including attempted and completed suicide (suicidality).Results:Psychiatric disorders (suicidality not included), suicidality and alcohol misuse were increased in CAH males compared with controls (OR 1.5, 2.3, and 1.9; 95%CI 1.1-2.2, 1.1-5.0, and 1.0-3.5). In the null genotype group, no increased rates were seen; in the I2splice group, psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and alcohol misuse were increased; in the I172N group suicide attempt and drug misuse were increased; and in the P30L and NC group psychotic disorders were increased. In CAH males born before the neonatal screening, the rate of psychiatric disorders and suicidality were increased, but only psychotic disorders in those born after. There was no increased risk for any neurodevelopmental disorder.Conclusions:CAH males have an increased psychiatric morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity was not raised in the most severe genotype group. Late diagnosis of CAH may explain some of the findings. Those born before the introduction of neonatal screening were more affected, which may be explained by the higher age.
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