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2.
  • Vermunt, L., et al. (författare)
  • Duration of preclinical, prodromal, and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease in relation to age, sex, and APOE genotype
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 15:7, s. 888-898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We estimated the age-specific duration of the preclinical, prodromal, and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the influence of sex, setting, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, and cerebrospinal fluid tau on disease duration. Methods: We performed multistate modeling in a combined sample of 6 cohorts (n = 3268) with death as the end stage and estimated the preclinical, prodromal, and dementia stage duration. Results: The overall AD duration varied between 24 years (age 60) and 15 years (age 80). For individuals presenting with preclinical AD, age 70, the estimated preclinical AD duration was 10 years, prodromal AD 4 years, and dementia 6 years. Male sex, clinical setting, APOE epsilon 4 allele carriership, and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid tau were associated with a shorter duration, and these effects depended on disease stage. Discussion: Estimates of AD disease duration become more accurate if age, sex, setting, APOE, and cerebrospinal fluid tau are taken into account. This will be relevant for clinical practice and trial design. (C) 2019 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • de Heus, R. A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Blood Pressure Lowering With Nilvadipine in Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer Disease Does Not Increase the Prevalence of Orthostatic Hypotension
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Hypertension is common among patients with Alzheimer disease. Because this group has been excluded from hypertension trials, evidence regarding safety of treatment is lacking. This secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial assessed whether antihypertensive treatment increases the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in patients with Alzheimer disease. Methods and Results-Four hundred seventy-seven patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease were randomized to the calcium-channel blocker nilvadipine 8 mg/day or placebo for 78 weeks. Presence of OH (blood pressure drop >= 20/>= 10 mm Hg after 1 minute of standing) and OH-related adverse events (dizziness, syncope, falls, and fractures) was determined at 7 follow-up visits. Mean age of the study population was 72.2 +/- 8.2 years and mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 20.4 +/- 3.8. Baseline blood pressure was 137.8 +/- 14.0/77.0 +/- 8.6 mm Hg. Grade I hypertension was present in 53.4% (n=255). After 13 weeks, blood pressure had fallen by -7.8/-3.9 mm Hg for nilvadipine and by -0.4/-0.8 mm Hg for placebo (P<0.001). Across the 78-week intervention period, there was no difference between groups in the proportion of patients with OH at a study visit (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.1 [0.8-1.5], P 0.62), nor in the proportion of visits where a patient met criteria for OH, corrected for number of visits (7.7 +/- 13.8% versus 7.3 +/- 11.6%). OH-related adverse events were not more often reported in the intervention group compared with placebo. Results were similar for those with baseline hypertension. Conclusions-This study suggests that initiation of a low dose of antihypertensive treatment does not significantly increase the risk of OH in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease.
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  • Bos, I., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration, synaptic integrity, and astroglial activation across the clinical Alzheimer's disease spectrum
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 15:5, s. 644-654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We investigated relations between amyloid-beta (A beta) status, apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4, and cognition, with cerebrospinal fluid markers of neurogranin (Ng), neurofilament light (NFL), YKL-40, and total tau (T-tau). Methods: We included 770 individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type dementia from the EMIF-AD Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study. We tested the association of Ng, NFL, YKL-40, and T-tau with A beta status (Ab beta- vs. A beta+), clinical diagnosis APOE epsilon 4 carriership, baseline cognition, and change in cognition. Results: Ng and T-tau distinguished between A beta+ from A beta- individuals in each clinical group, whereas NFL and YKL-40 were associated with A beta+ in nondemented individuals only. APOE epsilon 4 carriership did not influence NFL, Ng, and YKL-40 in A beta+ individuals. NFL was the best predictor of cognitive decline in A beta+ individuals across the cognitive spectrum. Discussion: Axonal degeneration, synaptic dysfunction, astroglial activation, and altered tau metabolism are involved already in preclinical AD. NFL may be a useful prognostic marker. (C) 2019 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Lawlor, B., et al. (författare)
  • Nilvadipine in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: A randomised controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - 1549-1676. ; 15:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background This study reports the findings of the first large-scale Phase III investigator-driven clinical trial to slow the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease with a dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blocker, nilvadipine. Nilvadipine, licensed to treat hypertension, reduces amyloid production, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and has demonstrated antiinflammatory and anti-tau activity in preclinical studies, properties that could have diseasemodifying effects for Alzheimer disease. We aimed to determine if nilvadipine was effective in slowing cognitive decline in subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. NILVAD was an 18-month, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that randomised participants between 15 May 2013 and 13 April 2015. The study was conducted at 23 academic centres in nine European countries. Of 577 participants screened, 511 were eligible and were randomised (258 to placebo, 253 to nilvadipine). Participants took a trial treatment capsule once a day after breakfast for 78 weeks. Participants were aged > 50 years, meeting National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's disease Criteria (NINCDS-ADRDA) for diagnosis of probable Alzheimer disease, with a Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) score of >= 12 and < 27. Participants were randomly assigned to 8 mg sustained-release nilvadipine or matched placebo. The a priori defined primary outcome was progression on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subscale-12 (ADAS-Cog 12) in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population (n = 498), with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) as a gated co-primary outcome, eligible to be promoted to primary end point conditional on a significant effect on the ADAS-Cog 12. The analysis set had a mean age of 73 years and was 62% female. Baseline demographic and Alzheimer disease +/- specific characteristics were similar between treatment groups, with reported mean of 1.7 years since diagnosis and mean SMMSE of 20.4. The prespecified primary analyses failed to show any treatment benefit for nilvadipine on the co-primary outcome (p = 0.465). Decline from baseline in ADASCog 12 on placebo was 0.79 (95% CI, -0.07 +/- 1.64) at 13 weeks, 6.41 (5.33 +/- 7.49) at 52 weeks, and 9.63 (8.33 +/- 10.93) at 78 weeks and on nilvadipine was 0.88 (0.02 +/- 1.74) at 13 weeks, 5.75 (4.66 +/- 6.85) at 52 weeks, and 9.41 (8.09 +/- 10.73) at 78 weeks. Exploratory analyses of the planned secondary outcomes showed no substantial effects, including on the CDR-sb or the Disability Assessment for Dementia. Nilvadipine appeared to be safe and well tolerated. Mortality was similar between groups (3 on nilvadipine, 4 on placebo); higher counts of adverse events (AEs) on nilvadipine (1,129 versus 1,030), and serious adverse events (SAEs; 146 versus 101), were observed. There were 14 withdrawals because of AEs. Major limitations of this study were that subjects had established dementia and the likelihood that non-Alzheimer subjects were included because of the lack of biomarker confirmation of the presence of brain amyloid. The results do not suggest benefit of nilvadipine as a treatment in a population spanning mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.
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  • Dyer, A. H., et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive Outcomes of Long-term Benzodiazepine and Related Drug (BDZR) Use in People Living With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: Results From NILVAD
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. - 1525-8610. ; 21:2, s. 194-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Benzodiazepines and related drugs (BDZRs) have been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in later life. Despite this, it remains unclear whether ongoing BDZR use may further accelerate cognitive decline in those diagnosed with mild to moderate AD. Design: This study was embedded within NILVAD, a randomized controlled trial of nilvadipine in mild to moderate AD. Cognition was measured at baseline and 18 months using the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subsection (ADAS-Cog). We assessed predictors of long-term BDZR use and analyzed the effect of ongoing BDZR use on ADAS-Cog scores at 18 months. Additionally, the impact of BDZR use on adverse events, incident delirium, and falls over 18-month follow-up was assessed adjusting for relevant covariates. Setting and Participants: 448 participants with mild to moderate AD recruited from 23 academic centers in 9 European countries. Results: Overall, 14% (62/448) were prescribed an ongoing BDZR for the study duration. Increasing total number of (non-BDZR) medications was associated with a greater likelihood of BDZR prescription (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.29). At 18 months, BDZR use was not associated with greater cognitive decline on the ADAS-Cog controlling for baseline ADAS-Cog scores, age, gender, study arm, and other clinical covariates (beta = 1.62, -1.34 to 4.56). However, ongoing BDZR use was associated with a greater likelihood of adverse events [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.19, 1.05-1.34], incident delirium (IRR 2.31, 1.45-3.68), and falls (IRR 1.66, 1.02-2.65) over 18 months that persisted after robust adjustment for covariates. Conclusions and Implications: This study found no effect of ongoing BDZR use on ADAS-Cog scores in those with mild to moderate AD over 18 months. However, ongoing use of these medications was associated with an increased risk of adverse events, delirium, and falls. Thus, BDZR use should be avoided where possible and deprescribing interventions should be encouraged in older adults with AD. (C) 2019 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
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10.
  • Frederiksen, K. S., et al. (författare)
  • A European Academy of Neurology guideline on medical management issues in dementia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 27:10, s. 1805-1820
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Dementia is one of the most common disorders and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and decreased quality of life. The present guideline addresses important medical management issues including systematic medical follow-up, vascular risk factors in dementia, pain in dementia, use of antipsychotics in dementia and epilepsy in dementia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) framework, we developed a guideline. Where recommendations based on GRADE were not possible, a good practice statement was formulated. Results: Systematic management of vascular risk factors should be performed in patients with mild to moderate dementia as prevention of cerebrovascular pathology may impact on the progression of dementia (Good Practice statement). Individuals with dementia (without previous stroke) and atrial fibrillation should be treated with anticoagulants (weak recommendation). Discontinuation of opioids should be considered in certain individuals with dementia (e.g. for whom there are no signs or symptoms of pain or no clear indication, or suspicion of side effects; Good Practice statement). Behavioral symptoms in persons with dementia should not be treated with mild analgesics (weak recommendation). In all patients with dementia treated with opioids, assessment of the individual risk–benefit ratio should be performed at regular intervals. Regular, preplanned medical follow-up should be offered to all patients with dementia. The setting will depend on the organization of local health services and should, as a minimum, include general practitioners with easy access to dementia specialists (Good Practice statement). Individuals with dementia and agitation and/or aggression should be treated with atypical antipsychotics only after all non-pharmacological measures have been proven to be without benefit or in the case of severe self-harm or harm to others (weak recommendation). Antipsychotics should be discontinued after cessation of behavioral disturbances and in patients in whom there are side effects (Good Practice statement). For treatment of epilepsy in individuals with dementia, newer anticonvulsants should be considered as first-line therapy (Good Practice statement). Conclusion: This GRADE-based guideline offers recommendations on several important medical issues in patients with dementia, and thus adds important guidance for clinicians. For some issues, very little or no evidence was identified, highlighting the importance of further studies within these areas.
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