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  • Dalton, A. S., et al. (författare)
  • An updated radiocarbon-based ice margin chronology for the last deglaciation of the North American Ice Sheet Complex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - 0277-3791. ; 234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The North American Ice Sheet Complex (NAISC; consisting of the Laurentide, Cordilleran and Innuitian ice sheets) was the largest ice mass to repeatedly grow and decay in the Northern Hemisphere during the Quaternary. Understanding its pattern of retreat following the Last Glacial Maximum is critical for studying many facets of the Late Quaternary, including ice sheet behaviour, the evolution of Holocene landscapes, sea level, atmospheric circulation, and the peopling of the Americas. Currently, the most up-to-date and authoritative margin chronology for the entire ice sheet complex is featured in two publications (Geological Survey of Canada Open File 1574 [Dyke et al., 2003]; 'Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Part II' [Dyke, 2004]). These often-cited datasets track ice margin recession in 36 time slices spanning 18 ka to 1 ka (all ages in uncalibrated radiocarbon years) using a combination of geomorphology, stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating. However, by virtue of being over 15 years old, the ice margin chronology requires updating to reflect new work and important revisions. This paper updates the aforementioned 36 ice margin maps to reflect new data from regional studies. We also update the original radiocarbon dataset from the 2003/2004 papers with 1541 new ages to reflect work up to and including 2018. A major revision is made to the 18 ka ice margin, where Banks and Eglinton islands (once considered to be glacial refugia) are now shown to be fully glaciated. Our updated 18 ka ice sheet increased in areal extent from 17.81 to 18.37 million km(2), which is an increase of 3.1% in spatial coverage of the NAISC at that time. Elsewhere, we also summarize, region-by-region, significant changes to the deglaciation sequence. This paper integrates new information provided by regional experts and radiocarbon data into the deglaciation sequence while maintaining consistency with the original ice margin positions of Dyke et al. (2003) and Dyke (2004) where new information is lacking; this is a pragmatic solution to satisfy the needs of a Quaternary research community that requires up-to-date knowledge of the pattern of ice margin recession of what was once the world's largest ice mass. The 36 updated isochrones are available in PDF and shapefile format, together with a spreadsheet of the expanded radiocarbon dataset (n = 5195 ages) and estimates of uncertainty for each interval. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Oh, T. G., et al. (författare)
  • PRMT2 and ROR gamma Expression Are Associated With Breast Cancer Survival Outcomes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809. ; 28:7, s. 1166-1185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) methylate arginine residues on histones and target transcription factors that play critical roles in many cellular processes, including gene transcription, mRNA splicing, proliferation, and differentiation. Recent studies have linked PRMT-dependent epigenetic marks and modifications to carcinogenesis and metastasis in cancer. However, the role of PRMT2-dependent signaling in breast cancer remains obscure. We demonstrate PRMT2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer relative to normal breast. Gene expression profiling, Ingenuity and protein-protein interaction network analysis after PRMT2-short interfering RNA transfection into MCF-7 cells, revealed that PRMT2-dependent gene expression is involved in cell-cycle regulation and checkpoint control, chromosomal instability, DNA repair, and carcinogenesis. For example, PRMT2 depletion achieved the following: 1) increased p21 and decreased cyclinD1 expression in (several) breast cancer cell lines, 2) decreased cell migration, 3) induced an increase in nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination DNA repair, and 4) increased the probability of distance metastasis free survival (DMFS). The expression of PRMT2 and retinoid-related orphan receptor-gamma (ROR gamma) is inversely correlated in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and increased ROR gamma expression increases DMFS. Furthermore, we found decreased expression of the PRMT2-dependent signature is significantly associated with increased probability of DMFS. Finally, weighted gene coexpression network analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between PRMT2-dependent genes and cell-cycle checkpoint, kinetochore, and DNA repair circuits. Strikingly, these PRMT2-dependent circuits are correlated with pan-cancer metagene signatures associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chromosomal instability. This study demonstrates the role and significant correlation between a histone methyltransferase (PRMT2)-dependent signature, ROR gamma, the cell-cycle regulation, DNA repair circuits, and breast cancer survival outcomes.
  • Polyak, Leonid, et al. (författare)
  • History of sea ice in the Arctic
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - 0277-3791 .- 1873-457X. ; 29:15-16, s. 1757-1778
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This information can be provided by proxy records from the Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO(2) after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13-14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2-3 million years, in accordance with Earth's overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even seasonally ice-free conditions occurred during warmer periods linked to orbital variations. The last low-ice event related to orbital forcing (high insolation) was in the early Holocene, after which the northern high latitudes cooled overall, with some superimposed shorterterm (multidecadal to millennial-scale) and lower-magnitude variability. The current reduction in Arctic ice cover started in the late 19th century, consistent with the rapidly warming climate, and became very pronounced over the last three decades. This ice loss appears to be unmatched over at least the last few thousand years and unexplainable by any of the known natural variabilities.
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