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Sökning: WFRF:(Gärdenäs Annemieke)

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  • Rappe George, M. O., et al. (författare)
  • Nitrogen leaching following clear-cutting and soil scarification at a Scots pine site – A modelling study of a fertilization experiment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management. - : Elsevier. - 0378-1127 .- 1872-7042. ; 385, s. 281-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Boreal forest stands fertilized with nitrogen (N) might be susceptible to elevated N leaching following clear-cutting, with consequences for water quality and soil acidification. Here, we studied a forest fertilization experiment with N, 165 Hagfors, in Sweden during the first six years (2006–2011) following clear-cutting. The N fertilization treatments were 0 kg ha−1 (0 N) and 450 kg ha−1 of N (450 N), supplied during 1981–1992 to a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand: the stand was harvested in March 2006. Following clear-cutting, disc trenching was performed and furrows (F), ridges (R) and areas in-between two furrows (IB) were created. We calculated the N leaching fluxes and ecosystem N budget during 2006–2011 as affected by previous N fertilization, disc trenching and interactions thereof, at Hagfors by the use of a process-based biogeophysical ecosystem model (CoupModel). The model was calibrated against measurements of soil water and temperature dynamics and previously reported measurements of N in soil solution, soil organic matter and vegetation biomass. Criteria for acceptance of model estimates were based on the range enclosed by the 95% confidence intervals of the mean of the field data used in calibration sampled at low frequency (1–2 occasions) and a combination of the mean error and the coefficient of the determination for variables sampled at a higher frequency (28–1921 occasions). The accepted model estimates of the mean annual leaching rates of N were 3.1 (range 1.4–22.7) and 2.4 (range 0.8–7.0) kg ha−1 of N year−1 in the treatments 0 N and 450 N, respectively, without disc trenching. Disc trenching increased N leaching during the regeneration phase, more so in the 450 N treatment (mean 6.1, range 1.9–16.7 kg ha−1 of N year−1) than in the 0 N treatment (mean 4.6, range 1.9–12.9 kg ha−1 of N year−1). Overall, differences in the posterior model parameter estimates between N treatments and disc trenched treatments F, R and IB were related to the soil physical component: the differences resulted in enhanced drainage in the disc trenched treatments. We conclude that vegetation biomass N accumulation controlled soil water N leaching, and disc trenching increased N leaching from the previously N fertilized plots at Hagfors by its effects on water drainage flow and vegetation N uptake. This finding warrants more research since N fertilization followed by soil scarification in boreal forests is a practice which may increase in the future.
  • Choma, Michal, et al. (författare)
  • Recovery of the ectomycorrhizal community after termination of long-term nitrogen fertilisation of a boreal Norway spruce forest
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Fungal Ecology. - : Elsevier. - 1754-5048 .- 1878-0083. ; 29, s. 116-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society.Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) are a fundamental component of boreal forests promoting tree growth and participating in soil nutrient cycling. Increased nitrogen (N) input is known to largely influence ECM communities but their potential recovery is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the effects of long-term N-fertilisation on ECM communities, and their recovery after termination of N treatment. Fungal ITS sequencing data indicated that N-fertilisation (34 kg N ha-1 y-1) for 46 y decreased the relative abundance of ECM species in the fungal community and suppressed originally dominating medium-distance fringe exploration types adapted to N-limited conditions, while the ECM diversity remained unaffected. In other plots, 23 y after termination of fertilisation at 73 kg N ha-1 y-1 for 23 y, the relative abundance of ECM species shifted closer to, but did not reach, control levels. These observations indicate only slow recovery of ECM community, likely due to a high soil N retention capacity.
  • Gärdenäs, Annemieke I., 1962, et al. (författare)
  • The grain storage of wet-deposited caesium and strontium by spring wheat - A modelling study based on a field experiment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697. ; 574, s. 1313-1325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aims of this study were to extend the Tracey model in order to quantify and to analyse spring wheat's grain storage dynamics of wet-deposited radionuclides. Tracey, a dynamic model of trace element cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, was extended with descriptions of wet-deposition, interception, foliar uptake and radioactive decay. Radionuclide fluxes were set proportional to corresponding water or carbon fluxes, simulated with CoupModel. The extended Tracey was calibrated against experimental data, where Cs-134 and Sr-85 were deposited on spring wheat at six growth stages in 2010 and 2011. Sensitivities of grain storage to wheat's and radionuclide properties were assessed, using the Eikos software, by 1000 Monte Carlo simulations for each of the 48 scenarios (combination of 2 radionuclides, 1 foliar uptake, 2 root uptake approaches, 6 deposition treatments and 2 years). Simulations were accepted if simulated grain storage values were within 95% confidence intervals (CI) of measurements. We found that 15% of Cs-134 and Sr-85 simulations for 2011, and 6% of the 2010 simulations met the Cl-criterion. Foliar uptake accounted for 99% and 90% of total plant uptake of Cs-134 and Sr-85, respectively. Mean simulated grain storage at harvest increased with lateness of deposition, as the stored proportion of radionuclide deposited was 0.02% when deposition was before flowering, 2% between flowering and ripening, and 5% (2010) or 10% (2011, late harvest) after ripening, respectively. Similarly, the property that governed grain storage depended on the growth stage at time of deposition; stem and leaf fixation rates (deposition before flowering), grain fixation rates (between flowering and ripening) and grains' interception capacity (after ripening). We conclude that grains' interception capacities can be used to predict grain storage of radionuclides deposited in the riskiest period, i.e. close to harvest. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Hansson, Linnea J., et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of off-road traffic on soil physical properties of forest clear-cuts: X-ray and laboratory analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. - : Taylor & Francis: STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles. - 0282-7581 .- 1651-1891. ; 33:2, s. 166-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Due to the great year-round demand for forest products, off-road forestry traffic occurs even when the ground is susceptible to soil compaction and rutting. We investigated the impacts of repeated passes with a laden forwarder (34 Mg) on the soil physical properties of two clear-cuts on stony till soils in northern Sweden. Core samples (n = 71) were collected from the top 5 cm of mineral soil in and beside wheel tracks, after six passes with the forwarder. Soil physical properties were quantified using classical soil physical analyses and X-ray tomography. The hydraulic conductivity was 70% lower in the wheel tracks than in the soil beside. The X-ray image analysis indicated that this was due to the smaller total volume and lower connectivity of structural pores (φ  >  60 µm). Total porosity was 24% and 12% lower in the tracks at the two sites respectively, and mean bulk density was 1.39 g cm −3 in the tracks, compared to 1.13 g cm −3 beside them. To conclude, traffic changed the soil physical properties in a way that may lead to longer periods of high water content in the wheel tracks, increased risk of surface runoff and insufficient aeration for optimal seedling growth.
  • Hansson, L. J., et al. (författare)
  • Soil temperature and water content dynamics after disc trenching a sub-xeric Scots pine clearcut in central Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Geoderma. - : Elsevier. - 0016-7061 .- 1872-6259. ; 327, s. 85-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soil scarification is widely used in boreal forestry to promote the growth and survival of seedlings. The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the impact of disc trenching on soil temperature and water content dynamics during the first six growing seasons after clearcutting. The site is a sub-xeric, coarse textured, coniferous field experiment, near Hagfors, central Sweden. Soil temperature and water content were measured hourly both 20 and 45 cm below the original surface of the mineral soil in three types of microsites created by disc trenching (furrows, ridges, and between-furrow areas) and an undisturbed control microsite outside the disc-trenched area. Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings were planted in the furrows and the control area before the measurements. The soil temperature and water content data were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models. Numbers of days exceeding critical thresholds of soil temperature and water content for seedling growth at each microsite were also calculated. Disc trenching increased soil temperature in the topsoil (<20 cm) of the furrows throughout the study period, but the effect declined over time. Similar, but weaker, effects were detected in ridges and between-furrows areas. Likewise, the largest daily and seasonal temperature amplitudes at 20 cm depth were recorded beneath the furrows, and the soil temperature sums (baseline 5 °C) over the whole study period were 20% higher in these microsites than in the control area. Soil temperatures never exceeded values considered optimal for root growth at any of the microsites. The soil water content in the furrows and control area only significantly differed during the last three years, when it was somewhat higher beneath the furrows. During the study period, the total number of days with potential water stress for the planted seedlings (volumetric soil water content <0.09 m3/m3) was 423 in the furrows compared to 554 in the control area. None of the microsites was wet enough to hamper aeration of roots in the topsoil. In conclusion, soil temperature and water regimes were more favorable for the seedlings in the furrows than in the control area for at least six growing seasons. We recommend planting soon after disc trenching to maximize benefits from the improved soil temperature conditions in the furrows. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
  • Hansson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Soil Compaction Effects on Root-Zone Hydrology and Vegetation in Boreal Forest Clearcuts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Soil Science Society of America Journal. - : Soil Science Society of America. - 0361-5995 .- 1435-0661. ; 83, s. S105-S115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soil compaction is a common consequence of forestry traffic traversing unprotected, moist soils; it decreases porosity and affects hydraulic conductivity even in coarse-textured soils. The aim here was to study root-zone hydrology and vegetation in three microsites (in, between, and beside wheel tracks) 4 to 5 yr after forwarder traffic, on stony and sandy till soils in two clearcuts in northern Sweden. Measurements of soil volumetric water content (VWC), vegetation indicators and one-dimensional hydrological modeling (Hydrus-1D) of wheel tracks and undisturbed soil were conducted. Soil VWC was monitored hourly during 2017 and 2018 in three or four plots along a slope on each site. Soil VWC was also measured once with a portable sensor in 117 plots along two slopes at each site, where the vegetation was recorded and analyzed using Ellenberg indicator indexes. Soil VWC was highest in wheel tracks and lowest between tracks; this was corroborated by the species composition in the wheel tracks (Ellenberg indicator for soil moisture). Bare soil was more frequent in wheel tracks and between tracks than in undisturbed soil. The model simulations indicated that the changed soil hydraulic properties influenced the VWC results in the wheel tracks. However, the differences in average pressure heads in the root zone were small between the microsites and only apparent during dry periods. In the wheel tracks, air-filled porosity was <0.10 m(3) m(-3), indicating insufficient soil aeration during 82% (Site T) and 23% (Site R) of the 2017 growing season. Insufficient aeration could be one explanation for the presence of some still unvegetated areas.
  • Mjöfors, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Indications that site preparation increases forest ecosystem carbon stocks in the long term
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. - : Taylor & Francis: STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Titles. - 0282-7581 .- 1651-1891. ; 32:8, s. 717-725
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanical site preparation (MSP) causes a mixing disturbance of the soil, which may increase decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent carbon (C) dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. MSP also promotes the establishment and growth of tree seedlings, and hence ecosystem C fixation. However, there are uncertainties regarding the net effects of MSP on C stocks at the ecosystem scale. To assess decennial effects of MSP on ecosystem C stocks, C stocks in soil, ground vegetation and trees at three experimental forest sites with Pinus contorta, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in Sweden were sampled and measured for ca. 25 years in a control and after three MSP treatments: disc trenching, mounding and ploughing. After 25 years, all of the MSP treatments resulted in larger ecosystem C stocks than the control treatment due to positive effects on the tree biomass C stock. The tree C stock was highest after ploughing, intermediate after mounding or disc trenching and lowest in untreated control plots at all experimental sites. The MSP treatments did not affect the soil C stocks down to 30 cm. We recommend mounding or disc trenching to promote C sequestration as they disturb sites’ ecological, aesthetic and recreation values less than ploughing.
  • Rappe-George, M. O., et al. (författare)
  • Indications that long-term nitrogen loading limits carbon resources for soil microbes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0038-0717 .- 1879-3428. ; 115, s. 310-321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial communities in the organic horizon (O-horizon) of forest soils play key roles in terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling, but effects on them of long-term high N loading, by N deposition or experimental addition, are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated N-loading effects on soil microbial biomass N, carbon (C) and phosphorus stoichiometry, hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, community composition (via phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and soil chemistry of the O-horizon in study plots of three well-studied experimental Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in Sweden and the Czech Republic. These forests span substantial gradients in current N deposition, experimental N addition and nitrate (NO3 −) leaching. Current N deposition ranges from ∼3 kg ha−1 year−1 of N in central Sweden (Stråsan) to ∼15 kg ha−1 year−1 of N in SW Sweden (Skogaby) and Czech Republic (Čertovo). Furthermore, accumulated historical N loading during 1950–2000 (which include experimental N addition performed at Stråsan and Skogaby) ranged ∼200–∼2000 kg ha−1 of N. Across all sites and treatments, current NO3 − leaching ranged from low (∼0.1 kg ha−1 year−1 of N) at Stråsan, to high (∼15 kg ha−1 year−1 of N) at Skogaby and Čertovo. We found significantly lower C/N ratios and greater amounts of extractable inorganic N species in the forest soils’ O-horizons at the high N loading plots. Microbial biomass and basal respiration decreased under experimental N addition treatments and tended to decrease with increased N deposition. Similarly, activities of hydrolytic enzyme activity associated with N acquisition were lower, although differences in activities at specific sites with the highest and intermediate historical N deposition levels failed statistical significance. Conversely, activities of soil hydrolytic enzymes associated with C acquisition were greater in study plots exposed high N loading. PLFA profiles indicated shifts in microbial community composition induced by long-term N load, towards higher and lower relative abundance of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively (but no changes in fungal relative abundance). Taken together, our results suggest that long-term N loading of N-limited Norway spruce forests aggravates limitation of other resources, likely of C, for soil microbial communities. Although microbial variables in the soil O-horizon differed between plots exposed to low and high current N loading, microbial variables in plots that leached small amounts and large amounts of NO3 − exposed to high N load were similar. © 2017
  • Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis, et al. (författare)
  • Forest cover change over four decades in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia : comparison of three watersheds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Regional Environmental Change. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1436-3798 .- 1436-378X. ; 14:1, s. 253-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to quantify forest cover changes in three watersheds (Gilgel Abbay (1,646 km(2)), Birr (980 km(2)), and Upper-Didesa (1,980 km(2)) of the Blue Nile Basin between 1957 and 2001. Four land cover maps were produced for each watershed for 1957/1958, 1975, 1986, and 2000/2001. Nine different types of land cover were identified, five of which were forest cover classes. Between 1957 and 2001, the total forest cover increased in Gilgel Abbay (from 10 to 22 % cover) and decreased in Birr (from 29 to 22 % cover) as well as in Upper-Didesa (from 89 to 45 % cover). The increase in Gilgel Abbay was primarily due to the expansion of eucalyptus plantations. Natural forest cover decreased in all three watersheds. Wooded grassland decreased by two-thirds, dry/moist mixed forests decreased by half, and riverine forests had disappeared by 1975 in Gilgel Abbay and Birr. Major deforestation had already taken place in the northern watersheds, Gilgel Abbay and Birr, before the 1960s and 1970s, while in the southern watershed, Upper-Didesa, much of the deforestation occurred after 1975. The southern watershed still remained by far the most forested watershed in 2001 despite the strong ongoing deforestation. The changes in forest cover could affect natural resource management, greenhouse gas emissions, water resources, and agricultural production including coffee production. The patterns of change are different in the three watersheds. We therefore recommend further studies of the local conditions and drivers of change as the basis for designing effective policy to halt further loss of natural forest, which offers a wealth of ecosystem services.
  • Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis, et al. (författare)
  • Hydrological change detection using modeling : Half a century of runoff from four rivers in the Blue Nile Basin
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Water resources research. - : American Geophysical Union (AGU) / Wiley. - 0043-1397 .- 1944-7973. ; 49:6, s. 3842-3851
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Land cover changes can have significant impacts on hydrological regime. The objective of this study was to detect possible hydrological changes of four watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin using a model-based method for hydrological change detection. The four watersheds, Birr, Upper-Didesa, Gilgel Abbay, and Koga range in size from 260 to 1800 km(2). The changes were assessed based on model parameters, model residuals, and in the overall function of the watersheds in transferring rainfall into runoff. The entire time series (1960-2004) was divided into three periods based on political and land management policy changes. A conceptual rainfall-runoff model, the HBV (Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdelning) model, was used for the analysis, and suitable parameter sets for each period were found based on a Monte Carlo approach. The values of six out of nine parameters changed significantly between the periods. Model residuals also showed significant changes between the three periods in three of the four watersheds. On the other hand, the overall functioning of the watersheds in processing rainfall to runoff changed little. So even though the individual parameters and model residuals were changing, the integrated functioning of the watersheds showed minimal changes. This study demonstrated the value of using different approaches for detecting hydrological change and highlighted the sensitivity of the outcome to the applied modeling and statistical methods.
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