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Sökning: WFRF:(Garavan Hugh)

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1.
  • Jia, Tianye, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation and its association with subcortical volumes : findings from the ENIGMA Epigenetics Working Group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.
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2.
  • Ruggeri, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Protein Phosphatase PPM1G With Alcohol Use Disorder and Brain Activity During Behavioral Control in a Genome-Wide Methylation Analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 172:6, s. 543-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The genetic component of alcohol use disorder is substantial, but monozygotic twin discordance indicates a role for nonheritable differences that could be mediated by epigenetics. Despite growing evidence associating epigenetics and psychiatric disorders, it is unclear how epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, relate to brain function and behavior, including drinking behavior. Method: The authors carried out a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of 18 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use disorder and validated differentially methylated regions. After validation, the authors characterized these differentially methylated regions using personality trait assessment and functional MRI in a sample of 499 adolescents. Results: Hypermethylation in the 3'-protein-phosphatase-1G (PPM1G) gene locus was associated with alcohol use disorder. The authors found association of PPM1G hypermethylation with early escalation of alcohol use and increased impulsiveness. They also observed association of PPM1G hypermethylation with increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in the right subthalamic nucleus during an impulsiveness task. Conclusions: Overall, the authors provide first evidence for an epigenetic marker associated with alcohol consumption and its underlying neurobehavioral phenotype.
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3.
  • Tay, Nicole, et al. (författare)
  • Allele-Specific Methylation of SPDEF : A Novel Moderator of Psychosocial Stress and Substance Abuse
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - : AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 176:2, s. 146-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Psychosocial stress is a key risk factor for substance abuse among adolescents. Recently, epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation have emerged as potential mechanisms that could mediate this relationship. The authors conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis to investigate whether differentially methylated regions are associated with psychosocial stress in an adolescent population.Methods: A methylome-wide analysis of differentially methylated regions was used to examine a sample of 1,287 14-year-old adolescents (50.7% of them female) from the European IMAGEN study. The Illumina 450k array was used to assess DNA methylation, pyrosequencing was used for technical replication, and linear regression analyses were used to identify associations with psychosocial stress and substance use (alcohol and tobacco). Findings were replicated by pyrosequencing a test sample of 413 participants from the IMAGEN study.Results: Hypermethylation in the sterile alpha motif/pointed domain containing the ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) gene locus was associated with a greater number of stressful life events in an allele-dependent way. Among individuals with the minor G-allele, SPDEF methylation moderated the association between psychosocial stress and substance abuse. SPDEF methylation interacted with lifetime stress in gray matter volume in the right cuneus, which in turn was associated with the frequency of alcohol and tobacco use. SPDEF was involved in the regulation of trans-genes linked to substance use.Conclusions: Taken together, the study findings describe a novel epigenetic mechanism that helps explain how psychosocial stress exposure influences adolescent substance abuse.
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4.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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5.
  • Bannbers, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and menstrual cycle phase on brain activity during response inhibition
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 142:1-3, s. 347-350
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has generally not been associated with impulsive behavior. However, some studies suggest that women with PMDD have higher impulsivity scores than healthy controls and that brain activity during response inhibition may vary across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, our aim was to unravel potentially important cognitive aspects of PMDD by investigating brain activity during response inhibition in women with PMDD and healthy controls in relation to menstrual cycle phase.METHODS:Fourteen PMDD patients and 13 healthy controls performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.RESULTS:Women with PMDD displayed decreased activity during both menstrual cycle phases compared to healthy controls in several task-related parietal areas. A significant group by phase interactions was found in the left insula, driven by enhanced activity among healthy controls in the follicular phase and by enhanced insula activity during the luteal phase among PMDD patients.LIMITATIONS:The limitations of the present study are the relatively limited sample size, the relatively small number of NoGo trials and the lack of a baseline contrast for the NoGo trials.CONCLUSIONS:During response inhibition women with PMDD have reduced activity in areas associated with attention and motor function which is unrelated to menstrual cycle phase. Insular cortex activity, involved in both affective and cognitive processing, was significantly activated during the luteal phase among PMDD women. These findings are relevant for the understanding of how ovarian steroids influence mood symptoms in women.
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6.
  • Khan, Wasim, et al. (författare)
  • A Multi-Cohort Study of ApoE epsilon 4 and Amyloid-beta Effects on the Hippocampus in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 56:3, s. 1159-1174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been consistently shown to modulate the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, using an AD and normal aging dataset primarily consisting of three AD multi-center studies (n = 1,781), we compared the effect of APOE and amyloid-beta (A beta) on baseline hippocampal volumes in AD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, and healthy controls. A large sample of healthy adolescents (n = 1,387) was also used to compare hippocampal volumes between APOE groups. Subjects had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and APOE genotyping. Hippocampal volumes were processed using FreeSurfer. In the AD and normal aging dataset, hippocampal comparisons were performed in each APOE group and in epsilon 4 carriers with positron emission tomography (PET) A beta who were dichotomized (A beta+/A beta-) using previous cut-offs. We found a linear reduction in hippocampal volumes with epsilon 4 carriers possessing the smallest volumes, epsilon 3 carriers possessing intermediate volumes, and epsilon 2 carriers possessing the largest volumes. Moreover, AD and MCI epsilon 4 carriers possessed the smallest hippocampal volumes and control epsilon 2 carriers possessed the largest hippocampal volumes. Subjects with both APOE epsilon 4 and A beta positivity had the lowest hippocampal volumes when compared to A beta-epsilon 4 carriers, suggesting a synergistic relationship between APOE epsilon 4 and A beta. However, we found no hippocampal volume differences between APOE groups in healthy 14-year-old adolescents. Our findings suggest that the strongest neuroanatomic effect of APOE epsilon 4 on the hippocampus is observed in AD and groups most at risk of developing the disease, whereas hippocampi of old and young healthy individuals remain unaffected.
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7.
  • Mueller, Christian P., et al. (författare)
  • The Cortical Neuroimmune Regulator TANK Affects Emotional Processing and Enhances Alcohol Drinking : A Translational Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 29:4, s. 1736-1751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. In this report, we analyse how the gene "TRAF family member-associated NF-kappa B activator" (TANK) affects alcohol drinking behavior. Based on our recent discovery in a large GWAS dataset that suggested an association of TANK, SNP rs197273, with alcohol drinking, we report that SNP rs197273 in TANK is associated both with gene expression (P = 1.16 x 10(-19)) and regional methylation (P = 5.90 x 10(-25)). A tank knock out mouse model suggests a role of TANK in alcohol drinking, anxiety-related behavior, as well as alcohol exposure induced activation of insular cortex NF-kappa B. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies among up to 1896 adolescents reveal that TANK is involved in the control of brain activity in areas of aversive interoceptive processing, including the insular cortex, but not in areas related to reinforcement, reward processing or impulsiveness. Our findings suggest that the cortical neuroimmune regulator TANK is associated with enhanced aversive emotional processing that better protects from the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior.
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8.
  • Ruggeri, Barbara, et al. (författare)
  • Methylation of OPRL1 mediates the effect of psychosocial stress on binge drinking in adolescents
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 9:6, s. 50-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Nociceptin is a key regulator linking environmental stress and alcohol drinking. In a genome-wide methylation analysis, we recently identified an association of a methylated region in the OPRL1 gene with alcohol-use disorders.METHODS: Here, we investigate the biological basis of this observation by analysing psychosocial stressors, methylation of the OPRL1 gene, brain response during reward anticipation and alcohol drinking in 660 fourteen-year-old adolescents of the IMAGEN study. We validate our findings in marchigian sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats that are genetically selected for increased alcohol drinking and stress sensitivity.RESULTS: We found that low methylation levels in intron 1 of OPRL1 are associated with higher psychosocial stress and higher frequency of binge drinking, an effect mediated by OPRL1 methylation. In individuals with low methylation of OPRL1, frequency of binge drinking is associated with stronger BOLD response in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. In msP rats, we found that stress results in increased alcohol intake and decreased methylation of OPRL1 in the nucleus accumbens.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings describe an epigenetic mechanism that helps to explain how psychosocial stress influences risky alcohol consumption and reward processing, thus contributing to the elucidation of biological mechanisms underlying risk for substance abuse.
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