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  • Garcia, Danilo, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Person-Centered Care
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. - Cham, Switzerland : Springer.
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Person-centered care is a model for health care that involves a biopsychosocial approach on health (physical, psychological, and social) and the person (body, mind, and psyche; Cloninger, 2004, 2013ab) through the alliance between the one giving care and the one seeking care as equal partners. One of the main aims is to implement a process that goes beyond the diagnostic formulation of identifying a disease state or ill-health, that is, a process of total health status, including ill-being and well-being (Mezzich et al., 2016). A second main aim is to empower the person seeking care to make self-directed informed choices to promote well-being in all planes of her/his life by including her/his subjective narratives, values, and meanings of illness and health as well as personal preferences and choices in treatment and care (Wong & Cloninger, 2010). A third main aim is the promotion of a working alliance in the health care process (Rogers, 1946; Kitwood & Bredin, 1992). This alliance includes the health care personnel, the person seeking the care, significant others, and also other community stakeholders involved in the health care of the person.
  • Garcia, Danilo, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • The Dark Side of the Affective Profiles: Differences and Similarities in Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Sage Open. - 2158-2440. ; 5:4, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The affective profiles model is based on the combination of individuals’ experience of high/low positive affect and high/low negative affect: self-fulfilling, high affective, low affective, and self-destructive. We used the profiles as the backdrop for the investigation of individual differences in malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism). A total of 1,000 participants (age: M = 31.50 SD = 10.27, 667 males and 333 females), recruited through Amazons’ Mechanical Turk (MTurk), responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Individuals with a high affective profile reported higher degree of narcissism than those with any other profile, and together with individuals with a self-destructive profile, also higher degree of Machiavellianism and psychopathy than individuals with a low affective and self-fulfilling profile. Males scored higher in Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Together with earlier findings, our results show that while individuals in both the self-fulfilling and high affective profiles are extrovert and self-directed, only those in the high affective profile express an immature and malevolent character (i.e., high levels of all Dark Triad traits). Conversely, individuals in the self-fulfilling profile have earlier reported higher levels of cooperativeness and faith. More importantly, the unique association between high levels of positive emotions and narcissism and the unified association between negative emotions to both psychopathy and Machiavellianism imply a dyad rather than a triad of malevolent character traits.
  • Persson, Björn N., et al. (författare)
  • Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences. - : Elsevier. - 0191-8869 .- 1873-3549. ; 117, s. 74-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.
  • Rylander, Pär, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Will the Peer Leader Please Stand Up? The Personality of the Peer Leader in Elite and Non-Elite Sport Teams.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology. - 2243-7681 .- 2243-769X. ; 3:1, s. 65-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examine associations between self-reported personal characteristics (i.e., skills and Big-Five traits) and peer leadership in team sports at elite and non-elite levels. At a general level, the peer-rated leadership was positively correlated with self-reported athletic skill, positive affect and Openness, while negatively correlated with negative affect and Neuroticism. Moreover, peer leadership was predicted by Extraversion in the non-elite group, while counter-predicted by Agreeableness in the elite group. Suggesting that athletic level might provide a “strong” (elite level) and a “weak” (non-elite level) context in which different traits predict who is perceived as a leader.
  • Adriansson, Lillemor, et al. (författare)
  • Affectively Motivated: Affective Profiles, Motivation, Stress and Energy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biquarterly Iranian Journal of Health Psychology. ; 2:2, s. 21-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We used the affective profiles model to investigate individual differences in motivation, stress and energy. The aim was to replicate past findings, but we also focused on matched comparisons within individuals with affective profiles that are similar in one affective dimension and differ in the other in order to predict changes when individuals increase/decrease their experience of positive or negative affect. Methods: A total of 567 participants answered the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, which was used for affective profiling; the Situational Motivation Scale, which measures intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation; and the Stress-Energy questionnaire. Results: Comparisons between the four different profiles, replicating the past findings, showed that individuals with high affective and self-fulfilling profile scored highest in intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and energy, while they scored lowest in external motivation, amotivation, and the self-fulfilling profile, also lowest in stress. Additionally, the matched comparisons showed, for example, that levels of intrinsic motivation increase when negative affect levels decrease, and positive affect is kept high when positive affect decreases and negative affect is kept low. Conclusions: One important feature of the affective profiles model is the possibility to compare individuals that are similar in one affect dimension but differ in the other (Garcia, 2011, 2017). This way of discussing individual differences helps to predict what changes could be expected when individuals increase or decrease their experience of positive or negative affect. Importantly, the direction of these changes cannot be addressed from cross-sectional data.
  • Amato, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • Individual and Organizational Factors at the Basis of Newly Graduated Nurses’ Burnout
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: XXXII International Congress of Psychology, Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Nurses’ burnout is extremely costly for hospitals and society in general. This is of special concern among newly graduated nurses, because about 25%-30% of them burnout or drop their jobs after the first year of employment. The aim of the present study was to investigate if newly graduated nurses’ perception of their work climate mediated the relationship between their personality and burnout symptoms. Method: At the beginning of their first year of work, 120 Swedish nurses answered the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Learning Climate Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We conducted hierarchical regression analysis to test if the effect of personality on burnout was mediated by nurses’ outlook on their work climate. Results: The mediation model was significant (F = 2.30, F-change = 4.71, p < .05, R2 = .14). Both Harm Avoidance ( = .27, p < .05) and Persistence ( = .22, p < .05) were related to higher levels of burnout. However, nurses’ perception of their work climate totally mediated the effect of both Harm Avoidance ( = .19, p = .10) and Persistence ( = .16, p = .15) on burnout. Conclusion: Nurses with a personality profile characterized by excessive worrying, pessimism, shyness, and fear (i.e., high Harm Avoidance) and who were perseverant in spite of fatigue or frustration (i.e., high Persistence) were more vulnerable to burnout because of their tendency to perceive lack of support and a highly demanding workplace. Moreover, they perceived a general feeling of work dissatisfaction and lacked sense of control over organizational events and the opportunity to learn and develop their competence. In sum, interventions aimed to mitigate the effect of critical work factors on burnout have to consider personality first; that is, the key to prevent burnout might be the development of a resilient personality profile.
  • Amato, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • Job Satisfaction Leads to Better Health By Improving Psychiatric Patients’ Outlook on Their Illness
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: 3rd Biennial International Convention of Psychological Science. Paris, France.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We found that psychiatric patients with regular or supported employment, compared to psychiatric patients without it, reported higher levels of health. More important, job satisfaction was related to not feeling prevented in daily life by their mental illness, which in turn lead to better health.
  • Amato, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • LinkedIn Users' Identity Clusters in the Prediction of Affectivity and Regulatory Mode
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: 3rd Biennial International Convention of Psychological Science. Paris, France..
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We used quantitative semantics to find clusters of words in LinkedIn users’ self-descriptions. Some of these identity clusters discriminated between LinkedIn users with high/low positive affect (social and messy vs. honest), high/low negative affect (social vs. flexible), high/low locomotion (social vs. flexible), and high/low assessment (analytical vs. happy).
  • Amato, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • Modus Operandi and Affect in Sweden: The Swedish Version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - 2167-8359. ; 5:e4092, s. 1-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Regulatory Mode Questionnaire (RMQ) is the most used and international well-known instrument for the measurement of individual differences in the two self-regulatory modes: locomotion (i.e., the aspect of self-regulation that is concerned with movement from state to state) and assessment (i.e., the comparative aspect of self-regulation). The aim of the present study was to verify the independence of the two regulatory modes, as postulated by the Regulatory Mode Theory (Kruglanski, Thompson, Higgins, Atash, Pierro, Shah & Spiegel, 2000), and the psychometric properties of the RMQ in the Swedish context. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between regulatory modes (locomotion and assessment) and affective well-being (i.e., positive affect and negative affect). Method: A total of 655 university and high school students in the West of Sweden (males = 408 females = 242, and 5 participants who didn’t report their gender; agemean = 21.93±6.51) responded to the RMQ and the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. We conducted two confirmatory factor analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM). A third SEM was conducted to test the relationship between locomotion and assessment to positive affect and negative affect. Results: The first analyses confirmed the unidimensional factor structure of locomotion and assessment and both scales showed good reliability. The assessment scale, however, was modified by dropping item 10 (“I don’t spend much time thinking about ways others could improve themselves.”) because it showed low loading (.07, p =.115). Furthermore, the effect of locomotion on positive affect was stronger than the effect of assessment on positive affect (Z = -15.16, p < .001), while the effect of assessment on negative affect was stronger than the effect of locomotion on negative affect (Z = 10.73, p < .001). Conclusion: The factor structure of the Swedish version of the RMQ is, as Regulatory Mode Theory suggests, unidimensional and it showed good reliability. The scales discriminated between the two affective well-being dimensions. We suggest that the Swedish version of the RMQ, with only minor modifications, is a useful instrument to tap individual differences in locomotion and assessment. Hence, the present study contributes to the validation of the RMQ in the Swedish culture and adds support to the theoretical framework of self-regulatory mode.
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