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Sökning: WFRF:(Gaskell C. M.)

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1.
  • Edelson, R. A., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength observations of short-timescale variability in NGC 4151. IV. Analysis of multiwavelength continuum variability
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 470:1, s. 364-377377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>For pt.III see ibid., vol.470, no.1, p.349-63 (1996). Combines data from the three preceding papers in order to analyze the multi wave-band variability and spectral energy distribution of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 during the 1993 December monitoring campaign. The source, which was near its peak historical brightness, showed strong, correlated variability at X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical wavelengths. The strongest variations were seen in medium-energy (~1.5 keV) X-rays, with a normalized variability amplitude (NVA) of 24%. Weaker (NVA=6%) variations (uncorrelated with those at lower energies) were seen at soft gamma-ray energies of ~100 keV. No significant variability was seen in softer (0.1-1 keV) X-ray bands. In the ultraviolet/optical regime, the NVA decreased from 9% to 1% as the wavelength increased from 1275 to 6900 Aring. These data do not probe extreme ultraviolet (1200 Aring to 0.1 keV) or hard X-ray (250 keV) variability. The phase differences between variations in different bands were consistent with zero lag, with upper limits of lsim0.15 day between 1275 Aring and the other ultraviolet bands, lsim0.3 day between 1275 Aring and 1.5 keV, and lsim1 day between 1275 and 5125 Aring. These tight limits represent more than an order of magnitude improvement over those determined in previous multi-wave-band AGN monitoring campaigns. The ultraviolet fluctuation power spectra showed no evidence for periodicity, but were instead well fitted with a very steep, red power law (ales-2.5)</p>
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2.
  • Crenshaw, D. M., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength observations of short-timescale variability in NGC 4151. I. Ultraviolet observations
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 470:1, s. 322-335335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Presents the results of an intensive ultraviolet monitoring campaign on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, as part of an effort to study its short-timescale variability over a broad range in wavelength. The nucleus of NGC 4151 was observed continuously with the International Ultraviolet Explorer for 9.3 days, yielding a pair of LWP and SWP spectra every ~70 minutes, and during 4 hr periods for 4 days prior to and 5 days after the continuous-monitoring period. The sampling frequency of the observations is an order of magnitude higher than that of any previous UV monitoring campaign on a Seyfert galaxy. The continuum fluxes in bands from 1275 to 2688 Aring went through four significant and well-defined ldquoeventsrdquo of duration 2-3 days during the continuous-monitoring period. The authors find that the amplitudes of the continuum variations decrease with increasing wavelength, which extends a general trend for this and other Seyfert galaxies to smaller timescales (i.e., a few days). The continuum variations in all the UV bands are simultaneous to within an accuracy of ~0.15 days, providing a strict constraint on continuum models. The emission-line light curves show only one major event during the continuous monitoring (a slow rise followed by a shallow dip) and do not correlate well with continuum light curves over the short duration of the campaign, because the timescale for continuum variations is apparently smaller than the response times of the emission lines</p>
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3.
  • Penasa, L., et al. (författare)
  • A three-dimensional modelling of the layered structure of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 469, s. S741-S754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We provide a three-dimensional model of the inner layered structure of comet 67P based on the hypothesis of an extended layering independently wrapping each lobe. A large set of terrace orientations was collected on the latest shape model and then used as a proxy for the local orientation of the surfaces of discontinuity which defines the layers. We modelled the terraces as a family of concentric ellipsoidal shells with fixed axis ratios, producing a model that is completely defined by just eight free parameters. Each lobe of 67P has been modelled independently, and the two sets of parameters have been estimated by means of non-linear optimization of the measured terrace orientations. The proposed model is able to predict the orientation of terraces, the elongation of cliffs, the linear traces observed in the Wosret and Hathor regions and the peculiar alignment of boulder-like features which has been observed in the Hapi region, which appears to be related to the inner layering of the big lobe. Our analysis allowed us to identify a plane of junction between the two lobes, further confirming the independent nature of the lobes. Our layering models differ from the best-fitting topographic ellipsoids of the surface, demonstrating that the terraces are aligned to an internal structure of discontinuities, which is unevenly exposed on the surface, suggesting a complex history of localized material removal from the nucleus.</p>
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4.
  • Auger, A. -T, et al. (författare)
  • Geomorphology of the Imhotep region on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context. Since August 2014, the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft has acquired high spatial resolution images of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, down to the decimeter scale. This paper focuses on the Imhotep region, located on the largest lobe of the nucleus, near the equator. Aims. We map, inventory, and describe the geomorphology of the Imhotep region. We propose and discuss some processes to explain the formation and ongoing evolution of this region. Methods. We used OSIRIS NAC images, gravitational heights and slopes, and digital terrain models to map and measure the morphologies of Imhotep. Results. The Imhotep region presents a wide variety of terrains and morphologies: smooth and rocky terrains, bright areas, linear features, roundish features, and boulders. Gravity processes such as mass wasting and collapse play a significant role in the geomorphological evolution of this region. Cometary processes initiate erosion and are responsible for the formation of degassing conduits that are revealed by elevated roundish features on the surface. We also propose a scenario for the formation and evolution of the Imhotep region; this implies the presence of large primordial voids inside the nucleus, resulting from its formation process.</p>
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5.
  • Gutierrez, P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Possible interpretation of the precession of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context. Data derived from the reconstruction of the nucleus shape of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) from images of the OSIRIS camera onboard ROSETTA show evidence that the nucleus rotates in complex mode. First, the orientation of the spin axis is not fixed in an inertial reference frame, which suggests a precessing motion around the angular momentum vector with a periodicity of approximately 257 h +/- 12 h. Second, periodograms of the right ascension and declination (RA/Dec) coordinates of the body-frame Z axis show a very significant (higher than 99.99%) periodicity at 276 h +/- 12 h, different from the rotational period of 12.40 h as previously determined from light-curve analysis. Aims. The main goal is to interpret the data and associated periodicities of the spin axis orientation in space. Methods. We analyzed the spin axis orientation in space and associated periodicities and compared them with solutions of Euler equations under the assumption that the body rotates in torque-free conditions. Statistical tests comparing the observationally derived spin axis orientation with the outcome from simulations were applied to determine the most likely inertia moments, excitation level, and periods. Results. Under the assumption that the body is solid-rigid and rotates in torque-free conditions, the most likely interpretation is that 67P is spinning around the principal axis with the highest inertia moment with a period of about 13 h. At the same time, the comet precesses around the angular momentum vector with a period of about 6.35 h. While the rotating period of such a body would be about 12.4 h, RA/Dec coordinates of the spin axis would have a periodicity of about 270 h as a result of the combination of the two aforementioned motions. Conclusions. The most direct and simple interpretation of the complex rotation of 67P requires a ratio of inertia moments significantly higher than that of a homogeneous body.</p>
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6.
  • Hasselmann, P. H., et al. (författare)
  • The opposition effect of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on post-perihelion Rosetta images
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 469, s. S550-S567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>High-resolution OSIRIS/Rosetta images of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko acquired on the night run of 2016 April 9-10 show, at large scale, an opposition effect (OE) spot sweeping across Imhotep as the phase angle ranges from 0 degrees to 17 degrees. In this work, we fitted the phase curve of the whole surface imaged as well as three particular features using both the linear-exponential and Hapke models. These features encompass different types of spectral behaviour: a circular mesa, one venous structure and an assemblage of bright spots, going from red to blue colours. Both the Hapke and linear-exponential parameters indicate a stepwise sharpening of the OE from bright spots to circular mesa. Yet a very broad nonlinear phase curve is verified and no sign of sharp OE associated with a coherent-backscattering mechanism is observed. We estimate that the 67P surface is dominated by opaque, desiccated and larger-than-wavelength irregular grains. Veins and bright spots display photometric properties consistent with surfaces becoming slightly brighter as they are enriched by high-albedo ice grains. We also report the estimation of normal albedo for all cometary regions observed throughout the image sequence. Comparison to pre-perihelion results indicates that far better insolation of northern brighter regions, i.e. Hapi, Hathor and Seth, is sufficient to explain mismatches on the photometric parameters. However, metre-scale photometric analysis of the Imhotep-Ash boundary area advocates for mild darkening (&lt;7 per cent) of the surface at local scale.</p>
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7.
  • Sierks, H., et al. (författare)
  • Images of Asteroid 21 Lutetia : A Remnant Planetesimal from the Early Solar System
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 334:6055, s. 487-490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Images obtained by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft reveal that asteroid 21 Lutetia has a complex geology and one of the highest asteroid densities measured so far, 3.4 +/- 0.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The north pole region is covered by a thick layer of regolith, which is seen to flow in major landslides associated with albedo variation. Its geologically complex surface, ancient surface age, and high density suggest that Lutetia is most likely a primordial planetesimal. This contrasts with smaller asteroids visited by previous spacecraft, which are probably shattered bodies, fragments of larger parents, or reaccumulated rubble piles.</p>
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8.
  • Jorda, L., et al. (författare)
  • The global shape, density and rotation of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from preperihelion Rosetta/OSIRIS observations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962). - 0019-1035 .- 1090-2643. ; 277, s. 257-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Rosetta spacecraft reached Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P/C-G) in August 2014 at an heliocentric distance of 3.6 a.u. and was then put in orbit around its nucleus to perform detailed observations. Among the collected data are the images acquired by the OSIRIS instrument up to the perihelion passage of the comet in August 2015, which allowed us to map the entire nucleus surface at high-resolution in the visible. Stereophotoclinometry methods have been used to reconstruct a global high-resolution shape model and to monitor its rotational parameters using data collected up to perihelion. The nucleus has a conspicuous bilobate shape with overall dimensions along its principal axes of (4.34 +/- 0.02) x (2.60 +/- 0.02) x (2.12 +/- 0.06) km. The best-fit ellipsoid dimensions of the individual lobes along their principal axes of inertia are found to be 4.10 x 3.52 x 1.63 km and 2.50 x 2.14 x 1.641cm. Their volume amounts to 66% and 27% of the total volume of the nucleus. The two lobes are connected by a "neck" whose volume has been estimated to represent similar to 7% of the total volume of the comet. Combining the derived volume of 18.8 +/- 0.3 km(3) with the mass of 9.982 +/- 0.003 x 10(12) kg determined by the Rosetta/RSI experiment, we obtained a bulk density of the nucleus of 532 +/- 7 kg m(-3). Together with the companion value of 535 35 kg m-3 deduced from the stereophotogrammetry shape model of the nucleus (Preusker et al. [2015] Astron. Astrophys. 583, A33), these constitute the first reliable and most accurate determination of the density of a cometary nucleus to date. The calculated porosity is quite large, ranging approximately from 70% to 75% depending upon the assumed density of the dust grains and the dust-to-ice mass ratio. The nature of the porosity, either micro or macro or both, remains unconstrained. The coordinates of the center of gravity are not compatible with a uniform nucleus density. The direction of the offset between the center of gravity and the center of figure suggests that the big lobe has a slightly higher bulk density compared to the small one. the center of mass position cannot be explained by different, but homogenous densities in the two lobes. The initial rotational period of 12.4041 +/- 0.0001 h of the nucleus persisted until October 2014. It then slightly increased to a maximum of 12.4304h reached on 19 May 2015 and finally dropped to 12.305 h just before perihelion on August 10, 2015. A periodogram analysis of the (RA, Dec) direction of the Z-axis of the comet obtained in parallel with the shape reconstruction exhibits a highly significant minima at 11.5 +/- 0.5 day clearly indicating an excited rotational state with an amplitude of 0.15 +/- 0.03 degrees.</p>
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9.
  • Clavel, J., et al. (författare)
  • Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. I. An 8 month campaign of monitoring NGC 5548 with IUE
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 366:1, s. 64-8181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The authors present emission-line and ultraviolet continuum observations of a type I Seyfert galaxy in which the time resolution is adequate for describing the character of variability. Using the IUE satellite, the nucleus of NGC 5548 was observed every 4 days for a period of 8 months. Its mean properties-continuum shape, line ratios-are not unusual for type I Seyfert galaxies, but it was found to be strongly variable. The ultraviolet continuum flux and broad emission line fluxes varied significantly, going through three large maxima and three deep minima. The great majority of all variations were well resolved in time. The data lend qualitative support to the view that photoionization by the nuclear continuum is responsible for driving the emission lines</p>
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10.
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