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1.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Hasan, A, et al. (författare)
  • World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia : Part 1: Update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. ; 13:5, s. 318-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful and these guidelines are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating people suffering from schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A–F; Bandelow et al. 2008b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242). This first part of the updated guidelines covers the general descriptions of antipsychotics and their side effects, the biological treatment of acute schizophrenia and the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.</p>
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3.
  • Forlenza, O. V., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease: Diagnostic accuracy and prediction of dementia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 1:4, s. 455-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Guidelines for the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) establish that each laboratory must use internally qualified cutoff values. We determined the concentrations of biomarkers that discriminate cases from controls and combinations that predict the progression to dementia in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: Concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ1-42), total tau (T-tau), and 181Thr-phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) were determined in CSF samples from 184 older adults (68 mild cognitive impairment, 41 AD, 34 non-AD cognitive impairment, and 41 controls) by the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay. Results: Cutoff values discriminating AD from controls are as follows: Aβ1-42: 416.0 pg/mL (sensitivity [SE]: 83%, specificity (SP): 70%); T-tau: 76.7 pg/mL (SE: 82%, SP: 67%); P-tau: 36.1 pg/mL (SE: 83%, SP: 49%); Aβ1-42/P-tau &lt;9.53 (SE: 88%, SP: 78%); and Aβ1-42/T-tau &lt;4.13 (SE: 80%; SP: 80%). Combining values Aβ1-42 &lt;416.5 pg/mL and Aβ1-42/P-tau &lt;9.5 best predicted the conversion in 2 years (Cox regression: hazard ratio 7.24 [2.09-25.06], P =.002, SE: 74%, Sp: 73%). Discussion: Our findings are in line with most of the available evidence in this field; yet, our cutoff values are different from those derived from other laboratories. © 2015 The Authors.
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