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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Georges Michael) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Georges Michael)

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  • Sund, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
  • Abercrombie, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Dark Matter benchmark models for early LHC Run-2 Searches : Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physics of the Dark Universe. - 0953-8585 .- 2212-6864. ; 27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.
  • Engert, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research : : A consensus document
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - Ferrata Storti Foundation. - 0390-6078. ; 101:2, s. 115-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at ∈ European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better fu treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.
  • Heath, Simon C., et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of the fine structure of European populations with applications to disease association studies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 16:12, s. 1413-1429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An investigation into fine-scale European population structure was carried out using high-density genetic variation on nearly 6000 individuals originating from across Europe. The individuals were collected as control samples and were genotyped with more than 300 000 SNPs in genome-wide association studies using the Illumina Infinium platform. A major East-West gradient from Russian (Moscow) samples to Spanish samples was identified as the first principal component (PC) of the genetic diversity. The second PC identified a North-South gradient from Norway and Sweden to Romania and Spain. Variation of frequencies at markers in three separate genomic regions, surrounding LCT, HLA and HERC2, were strongly associated with this gradient. The next 18 PCs also accounted for a significant proportion of genetic diversity observed in the sample. We present a method to predict the ethnic origin of samples by comparing the sample genotypes with those from a reference set of samples of known origin. These predictions can be performed using just summary information on the known samples, and individual genotype data are not required. We discuss issues raised by these data and analyses for association studies including the matching of case-only cohorts to appropriate pre-collected control samples for genome-wide association studies.
  • Stammet, Pascal, et al. (författare)
  • Protein S100 as outcome predictor after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management at 33 °C and 36 °C
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Critical Care. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1364-8535. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of S100 as an outcome predictor after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and the potential influence of two target temperatures (33 °C and 36 °C) on serum levels of S100. Methods: This is a substudy of the Target Temperature Management after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (TTM) trial. Serum levels of S100 were measured a posteriori in a core laboratory in samples collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA. Outcome at 6 months was assessed using the Cerebral Performance Categories Scale (CPC 1-2 = good outcome, CPC 3-5 = poor outcome). Results: We included 687 patients from 29 sites in Europe. Median S100 values were higher in patients with a poor outcome at 24, 48, and 72 h: 0.19 (IQR 0.10-0.49) versus 0.08 (IQR 0.06-0.11) μg/ml, 0.16 (IQR 0.10-0.44) versus 0.07 (IQR 0.06-0.11) μg/L, and 0.13 (IQR 0.08-0.26) versus 0.06 (IQR 0.05-0.09) μg/L (p < 0.001), respectively. The ability to predict outcome was best at 24 h with an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.77-0.83). S100 values were higher at 24 and 72 h in the 33 °C group than in the 36 °C group (0.12 [0.07-0.22] versus 0.10 [0.07-0.21] μg/L and 0.09 [0.06-0.17] versus 0.08 [0.05-0.10], respectively) (p < 0.02). In multivariable analyses including baseline variables and the allocated target temperature, the addition of S100 improved the AUC from 0.80 to 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.87) (p < 0.001), but S100 was not an independent outcome predictor. Adding S100 to the same model including neuron-specific enolase (NSE) did not further improve the AUC. Conclusions: The allocated target temperature did not affect S100 to a clinically relevant degree. High S100 values are predictive of poor outcome but do not add value to present prognostication models with or without NSE. S100 measured at 24 h and afterward is of limited value in clinical outcome prediction after OHCA. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01020916. Registered on 25 November 2009.
  • Bjorkman, Anne, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 562:7725, s. 57-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature–trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
  • Bläckberg, Lisa, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Light spread manipulation in scintillators using laser induced optical barriers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). - 0018-9499 .- 1558-1578. ; 65:8, s. 2208-2215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We are using the Laser Induced Optical Barriers (LIOB) technique to fabricate scintillator detectors with combined performance characteristics of the two standard detector types, mechanically pixelated arrays and monolithic crystals. This is done by incorporation of so-called optical barriers that have a refractive index lower than that of the crystal bulk. Such barriers can redirect the scintillation light and allow for control of the light spread in the detector. Previous work has shown that the LIOB technique has the potential to achieve detectors with high transversal and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution simultaneously in a single-side readout configuration, suitable for high resolution PET imaging. However, all designs studied thus far present edge effect issues similarly as in the standard detector categories. In this work we take advantage of the inherent flexibility of the LIOB technique and investigate alternative barrier patterns with the aim to address this problem. Light transport simulations of barrier patterns in LYSO:Ce, with deeper barrier walls moving towards the detector edge show great promise in reducing the edge effect, however there is a trade-off in terms of achievable DOI information. Furthermore, fabrication and characterization of a 20 mm thick LYSO:Ce detector with optical barriers forming a pattern of 1×1×20mm3 pixel like structures show that light channeling in laser-processed detectors in agreement with optical barriers with refractive index between 1.2 and 1.4 is achievable.
  • Bläckberg, Lisa, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Scintillator-based Photon Counting Detector : is it feasible?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference And Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (Nss/Mic/Rtsd). - 978-1-5090-1642-6 - 978-1-5090-1643-3
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By utilizing finely pitched scintillator arrays where the scintillator has high atomic number and density, fast decay time, and high light output, realizing a scintillator-based Photon Counting Detector (PCD) is conceptually feasible. Fabrication of fine-pitched scintillator arrays however, has been the bottleneck for realizing such detectors. Combining the novel scintillator fabrication technique called laser-induced optical barriers (LIOB) where optical barriers can be placed inside a transparent crystal and act as a reflector without removing the material, with laser ablation, we are now able to overcome the obstacles for developing scintillator-based PCD. In this regard, we are developing an LYSO-based PCD where the LYSO crystal is laser pixelated to sub-mm pixels. The scintillator array will be coupled to an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) where each ASIC pixel has built-in photodiode, amplifiers and 3-4 energy windows and their associated counters. We have simulated light transport for different scenarios where the crystal is pixelated by a combination of LIOB and laser cut techniques, where the 2 mm thick crystal is first pixelated by LIOB to a depth and then the rest is pixelated by the ablation technique. We also simulated the fraction of collected light in the same scintillator pixel by modeling various surface properties of the pixel cuts as well as optical barrier surface roughness and refractive index (RI). Simulation results show that up to similar to 70% of the scintillation light will be contained in the same pixel when only using the LIOB technique with barrier refractive index of 1.0. These results suggest that laser processed arrays can potentially change the paradigm in PCD development as they can replace the traditional array production and thus allow for scintillator-based PCD development in a more robust and cost-effective manner.
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