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Sökning: WFRF:(Gerke Travis)

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1.
  • Shui, Irene M., et al. (författare)
  • Prostate Cancer (PCa) Risk Variants and Risk of Fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 65:6, s. 1069-1075
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM). Objective: To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM. Design, setting, and participants: We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls. Results and limitations: Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (p &lt; 0.05) with time to PCSM. The risk allele of rs11672691 (intergenic) was associated with an increased risk for PCSM, while 7 SNPs had risk alleles inversely associated (rs13385191 [C2orf43], rs17021918 [PDLIM5], rs10486567 [JAZF1], rs6465657 [LMTK2], rs7127900 (intergenic), rs2735839 [KLK3], rs10993994 [MSMB], rs13385191 [C2orf43]). In the case-control analysis, 22 SNPs were associated (p &lt; 0.05) with the risk of fatal PCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only. Conclusions: Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa. Patient summary: In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that could aid prediction. (C) 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p>
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2.
  • Martin, Neil E., et al. (författare)
  • Measuring PI3K Activation : Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and RNA Expression Analysis in Prostate Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1541-7786 .- 1557-3125. ; 13:10, s. 1431-1440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Assessing the extent of PI3K pathway activity in cancer is vital to predicting sensitivity to PI3K-targeting drugs, but the best biomarker of PI3K pathway activity in archival tumor specimens is unclear. Here, PI3K pathway activation was assessed, in clinical tissue from 1,021 men with prostate cancers, using multiple pathway nodes that include PTEN, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), and stathmin. Based on these markers, a 9-point score of PI3K activation was created using the combined intensity of the 4-markers and analyzed its association with proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (TUNEL), and androgen receptor (AR) status, as well as pathologic features and cancer-specific outcomes. In addition, the PI3K activation score was compared with mRNA expression profiling data for a large subset of men. Interestingly, those tumors with higher PI3K activation scores also had higher Gleason grade (P = 0.006), increased AR (r = 0.37; P &lt; 0.001) and Ki67 (r = 0.24; P &lt; 0.001), and decreased TUNEL (r = -0.12; P = 0.003). Although the PI3K activation score was not associated with an increased risk of lethal outcome, a significant interaction between lethal outcome, Gleason and high PI3K score (P = 0.03) was observed. Finally, enrichment of PI3K-specific pathways was found in the mRNA expression patterns differentiating the low and high PI3K activation scores; thus, the 4-marker IHC score of PI3K pathway activity correlates with features of PI3K activation.</p>
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3.
  • Ostrom, Quinn T., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating glioma risk associated with extent of European admixture in African-Americans and Latinos
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 78:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, where it occurs ~2x as frequently compared with other race/ethnicity groups. Glioma GWAS to date have included European ancestry populations only, and it is unknown whether variants identified by these analyses are associated with glioma in non- European ancestry populations. African Americans and Hispanics are admixed populations with varying proportions of European ancestry. While global ancestry may be similar within admixed groups, the proportion of European ancestry at each allele can vary across the genome. As glioma is more common in European ancestry populations, the presence of increased local European ancestry in these admixed populations could be used to identify glioma risk loci. Here we assessed whether excess European ancestry at established risk loci (Melin et al, Nature Genetics, 2017) was associated with glioma risk in non-European ancestry populations. Global ancestry was estimated using fastStructure, and local ancestry was estimated using RFMix. Both methods used 1,000 genomes project reference populations (African: YRI; European: CEU; East Asian: CHB/JPT; and Native American: CLM/PEL/MXL). We evaluated differences in local European ancestry between cases and controls using logistic regression conditioned on global European ancestry within 500kb of 25 previously identified risk variants among individuals with ≥50% African ancestry, and ≥30% Native American ancestry for all gliomas, and for grade IV glioblastoma (GBM) and grade II-III non-GBM. There were 347 individuals (184 cases and 163 controls) with ≥50% global African ancestry, and 277 individuals (153 cases and 124 controls) with ≥30% global American ancestry. There was no significant difference in proportion of global European ancestry between cases and controls with ≥50% global African ancestry (cases: 18.2%, controls: 17.7%, p=0.6834), and no significant difference in proportion of global European ancestry between cases and controls with ≥30% global American ancestry (cases: 51.1%, controls: 49.0%, p=0.2123). Among individuals with &gt;50% African ancestry, we observed a nominally significant association between all glioma and increased local European ancestry at 7p11.2 (EGFR, pmin=0.0070) and between GBM and increased local European ancestry at 22q13.1 (CSNK1E, pmin=0.0098), both near SNPs previously associated with glioblastoma in majority European-ancestry populations. The dataset used for this analysis represents the largest collection of genotyped non-European glioma cases. These results suggest that glioma risk in African Americans may be associated with an increased local European ancestry variants at glioma risk loci previously identified in majority European ancestry populations (7p11.2 and 22q13.1).</p>
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4.
  • Ostrom, Quinn T., et al. (författare)
  • Glioma risk associated with extent of estimated European genetic ancestry in African Americans and Hispanics
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 146:3, s. 739-748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, and to date, glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have only included European ancestry (EA) populations. African Americans and Hispanics in the US have varying proportions of EA, African (AA) and Native American ancestries (NAA). It is unknown if identified GWAS loci or increased EA is associated with increased glioma risk. We assessed whether EA was associated with glioma in African Americans and Hispanics. Data were obtained for 832 cases and 675 controls from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and GliomaSE Case-Control Study previously estimated to have &lt;80% EA, or self-identify as non-White. We estimated global and local ancestry using fastStructure and RFMix, respectively, using 1,000 genomes project reference populations. Within groups with &gt;= 40% AA (AFR(&gt;= 0.4)), and &gt;= 15% NAA (AMR(&gt;= 0.15)), genome-wide association between local EA and glioma was evaluated using logistic regression conditioned on global EA for all gliomas. We identified two regions (7q21.11, p = 6.36 x 10(-4); 11p11.12, p = 7.0 x 10-4) associated with increased EA, and one associated with decreased EA (20p12.13, p = 0.0026) in AFR(&gt;= 0.4). In addition, we identified a peak at rs1620291 (p = 4.36 x 10(-6)) in 7q21.3. Among AMR(&gt;= 0.15), we found an association between increased EA in one region (12q24.21, p = 8.38 x 10(-4)), and decreased EA in two regions (8q24.21, p = 0. 0010; 20q13.33, p = 6.36 x 10(-4)). No other significant associations were identified. This analysis identified an association between glioma and two regions previously identified in EA populations (8q24.21, 20q13.33) and four novel regions (7q21.11, 11p11.12, 12q24.21 and 20p12.13). The identifications of novel association with EA suggest regions to target for future genetic association studies. What's new? Glioma is rare in non-White populations, and most glioma genome-wide association studies have included only primarily European ancestry populations. Here, the authors assess whether variation in European ancestry is associated with glioma risk in populations with a combination of European, African and Native American ancestry. Based on African American and Hispanic cases from two large glioma case-control studies, this analysis shows that increased European ancestry in admixed populations may be associated with increased glioma risk. The associations between glioma and two chromosomal regions previously identified in European ancestry populations, and four novel regions, may guide future studies.</p>
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5.
  • Pettersson, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The ABC model of prostate cancer : A conceptual framework for the design and interpretation of prognostic studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - Hoboken, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 123:9, s. 1490-1496
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There has been limited success in identifying prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer. A partial explanation may be that insufficient emphasis has been put on clearly defining what type of marker or patient category a biomarker study aims to identify and how different cohort characteristics affect the ability to identify such a marker. In this article, the authors put forth the ABC model of prostate cancer, which defines 3 groups of patients with localized disease that an investigator may seek to identify: patients who, within a given time frame, will not develop metastases even if untreated (category A), will not develop metastases because of radical treatment (category B), or will develop metastases despite radical treatment (category C). The authors demonstrate that follow-up time and prostate-specific antigen screening intensity influence the prevalence of patients in categories A, B, and C in a study cohort, and that prognostic markers must be tested in both treated and untreated cohorts to accurately distinguish the 3 groups. The authors suggest that more emphasis should be put on considering these factors when planning, conducting, and interpreting the results from prostate cancer biomarker studies, and propose the ABC model as a framework to aid in that process.</p>
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6.
  • Pettersson, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The ABC model of prostate cancer A conceptual framework for the design and interpretation of prognostic studies.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 123:9, s. 1490-1496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There has been limited success in identifying prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer. A partial explanation may be that insufficient emphasis has been put on clearly defining what type of marker or patient category a biomarker study aims to identify and how different cohort characteristics affect the ability to identify such a marker. In this article, the authors put forth the ABC model of prostate cancer, which defines 3 groups of patients with localized disease that an investigator may seek to identify: patients who, within a given time frame, will not develop metastases even if untreated (category A), will not develop metastases because of radical treatment (category B), or will develop metastases despite radical treatment (category C). The authors demonstrate that follow-up time and prostate-specific antigen screening intensity influence the prevalence of patients in categories A, B, and C in a study cohort, and that prognostic markers must be tested in both treated and untreated cohorts to accurately distinguish the 3 groups. The authors suggest that more emphasis should be put on considering these factors when planning, conducting, and interpreting the results from prostate cancer biomarker studies, and propose the ABC model as a framework to aid in that process. Cancer 2017;123:1490-1496. © 2017 American Cancer Society.</p>
7.
  • Preston, Mark A., et al. (författare)
  • Baseline Prostate-specific Antigen Level in Midlife and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in Black Men
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 0302-2838. ; 75:3, s. 399-407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement in midlife predicts long-term prostate cancer (PCa) mortality among white men. Objective: To determine whether baseline PSA level during midlife predicts risk of aggressive PCa in black men. Design, setting, and participants: Nested case-control study among black men in the Southern Community Cohort Study recruited between 2002 and 2009. A prospective cohort in the southeastern USA with recruitment from community health centers. A total of 197 incident PCa patients aged 40–64 yr at study entry and 569 controls matched on age, date of blood draw, and site of enrollment. Total PSA was measured in blood collected and stored at enrollment. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Total and aggressive PCa (91 aggressive: Gleason ≥7, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/IV, or PCa-specific death). Exact conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCa by category of baseline PSA. Results and limitations: Median PSA among controls was 0.72, 0.80, 0.94, and 1.03 ng/ml for age groups 40–49, 50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 yr, respectively; 90th percentile levels were 1.68, 1.85, 2.73, and 3.33 ng/ml. Furthermore, 95% of total and 97% of aggressive cases had baseline PSA above the age-specific median. Median follow-up was 9 yr. The OR for total PCa comparing PSA >90th percentile versus ≤median was 83.6 (95% CI, 21.2–539) for 40–54 yr and 71.7 (95% CI, 23.3–288) for 55–64 yr. For aggressive cancer, ORs were 174 (95% CI, 32.3–infinity) for 40–54 yr and 51.8 (95% CI, 11.0–519) for 55–64 yr. A composite endpoint of aggressive PCa based on stage, grade, and mortality was used and is a limitation. Conclusions: PSA levels in midlife strongly predicted total and aggressive PCa among black men. PSA levels among controls were similar to those among white controls in prior studies. Patient summary: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level during midlife strongly predicted future development of aggressive prostate cancer among black men. Targeted screening based on a midlife PSA might identify men at high risk while minimizing screening in those men at low risk. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level during midlife strongly predicted total and aggressive prostate cancer among black men. Risk-stratified screening based on midlife PSA might retain the benefits of screening while reducing harms.
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8.
  • Preston, Mark A, et al. (författare)
  • Baseline Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Midlife Predict Lethal Prostate Cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 34:23, s. 2705-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in midlife predicted future prostate cancer (PCa) mortality in an unscreened Swedish population. Our purpose was to determine if a baseline PSA level during midlife predicts lethal PCa in a US population with opportunistic screening.We conducted a nested case-control study among men age 40 to 59 years who gave blood before random assignment in the Physicians' Health Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin and β-carotene among 22,071 US male physicians initiated in 1982 and then transitioned into a prospective cohort with 30 years of follow-up. Baseline PSA levels were available for 234 patients with PCa and 711 age-matched controls. Seventy-one participants who developed lethal PCa were rematched to 213 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, with 95% CIs, of the association between baseline PSA and risk of lethal PCa.Median PSA among controls was 0.68, 0.88, and 0.96 ng/mL for men age 40 to 49, 50 to 54, and 55 to 59 years, respectively. Risk of lethal PCa was strongly associated with baseline PSA in midlife: odds ratios (95% CIs) comparing PSA in the > 90th percentile versus less than or equal to median were 8.7 (1.0 to 78.2) at 40 to 49 years, 12.6 (1.4 to 110.4) at 50 to 54 years, and 6.9 (2.5 to 19.1) at 55 to 59 years. A total of 82%, 71%, and 86% of lethal cases occurred in men with PSA above the median at ages 40 to 49, 50 to 54, and 55 to 59 years, respectively.PSA levels in midlife strongly predict future lethal PCa in a US cohort subject to opportunistic screening. Risk-stratified screening on the basis of midlife PSA should be considered in men age 45 to 59 years.
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9.
  • Stopsack, Konrad H., et al. (författare)
  • Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 76:16, s. 4785-4790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (&gt;1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease.</p>
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10.
  • Stopsack, Konrad H., et al. (författare)
  • Cholesterol uptake and regulation in high-grade and lethal prostate cancers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 38:8, s. 806-811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Lethal prostate cancers have higher expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE), the second rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Preclinical studies suggested that aberrant cholesterol regulators, receptors and transporters contribute to cholesterol accumulation uniformly. We assessed their association with features of aggressive cancers. In the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professional Follow-up Study, the Physicians' Health Study and the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study, tumor mRNA expression profiling was performed. Lethal disease was defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer (n = 266) in contrast to non-lethal disease without metastases after &gt;8 years of follow-up (n = 476). Associations with Gleason grade were additionally assessed using The Cancer Genome Atlas primary prostate cancer dataset (n = 333). Higher Gleason grade was associated with lower LDLR expression, lower SOAT1 and higher SQLE expression. Besides high SQLE expression, cancers that became lethal despite primary treatment were characterized by low LDLR expression (odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile, 0.37; 95% CI 0.18-0.76) and by low SOAT1 expression (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.83). The association of LDLR expression and lethality was not present in tumors with high IDOL expression. ABCA1, PCSK9 or SCARB1 expressions were not associated with Gleason grade or lethal cancer. In summary, prostate cancers that progress to lethal disease rely on de novo cholesterol synthesis (via SQLE), rather than transcellular uptake (via LDLR) or cholesterol esterification (via SOAT1). These results may help design pharmacotherapy for high-risk patients.</p>
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