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Sökning: WFRF:(Gertow Karl)

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1.
  • Gaulton, Kyle J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:12, s. 1415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to noncoding sequence, implying that association with T2D is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that the T2D risk allele for this SNP increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.
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2.
  • Mahajan, Anubha, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 46:3, s. 234-234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
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3.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:10, s. 1171-1184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals were used for validation. We identified 66 blood pressure-associated loci, of which 17 were new; 15 harbored multiple distinct association signals. The 66 index SNPs were enriched for cis-regulatory elements, particularly in vascular endothelial cells, consistent with a primary role in blood pressure control through modulation of vascular tone across multiple tissues. The 66 index SNPs combined in a risk score showed comparable effects in 64,421 individuals of non-European descent. The 66-SNP blood pressure risk score was significantly associated with target organ damage in multiple tissues but with minor effects in the kidney. Our findings expand current knowledge of blood pressure-related pathways and highlight tissues beyond the classical renal system in blood pressure regulation.
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4.
  • Morris, Andrew P., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 44:9, s. 981-981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To extend understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants on the Metabochip, including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls, overwhelmingly of European descent. We identified ten previously unreported T2D susceptibility loci, including two showing sex-differentiated association. Genomewide analyses of these data are consistent with a long tail of additional common variant loci explaining much of the variation in susceptibility to T2D. Exploration of the enlarged set of susceptibility loci implicates several processes, including CREBBP-related transcription, adipocytokine signaling and cell cycle regulation, in diabetes pathogenesis.
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5.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in Europeans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - AMER DIABETES ASSOC. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:11, s. 2888-2902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in additional data sets (of 14,545 or 7,397 T2D case and 38,994 or 71,604 control subjects). We identified 13 novel T2D-associated loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including variants near the GLP2R, GIP, and HLA-DQA1 genes. Our analysis brought the total number of independent T2D associations to 128 distinct signals at 113 loci. Despite substantially increased sample size and more complete coverage of low-frequency variation, all novel associations were driven by common single nucleotide variants. Credible sets of potentially causal variants were generally larger than those based on imputation with earlier reference panels, consistent with resolution of causal signals to common risk haplotypes. Stratification of T2D-associated loci based on T2D-related quantitative trait associations revealed tissue-specific enrichment of regulatory annotations in pancreatic islet enhancers for loci influencing insulin secretion and in adipocytes, monocytes, and hepatocytes for insulin action-associated loci. These findings highlight the predominant role played by common variants of modest effect and the diversity of biological mechanisms influencing T2D pathophysiology.
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6.
  • Bruzelius, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of coronary artery disease-associated genetic variants on risk of venous thromboembolism
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - 0049-3848 .- 1879-2472. ; 134:2, s. 426-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION:We investigated whether genetic variations robustly associated with coronary artery disease are also associated with risk of venous thromboembolism in a well-defined, female case-control study (n=2753) from Sweden.MATERIALS AND METHODS:39 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 32 loci associated with coronary artery disease in genome-wide association studies were identified in a literature search and genotyped in the ThromboEmbolism Hormone Study (TEHS). Association with venous thromboembolism was assessed by logistic regression.RESULTS:Only rs579459 in the ABO locus demonstrated a significant association with VTE. A tentative association between ANRIL and VTE in the discovery analysis failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 4 independent cohorts (total n=7181).CONCLUSIONS:It appears that only the ABO locus is a shared risk factor for coronary artery disease and VTE.
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7.
  • Franberg, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Discovering Genetic Interactions in Large-Scale Association Studies by Stage-wise Likelihood Ratio Tests
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390. ; 11:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite the success of genome-wide association studies in medical genetics, the underlying genetics of many complex diseases remains enigmatic. One plausible reason for this could be the failure to account for the presence of genetic interactions in current analyses. Exhaustive investigations of interactions are typically infeasible because the vast number of possible interactions impose hard statistical and computational challenges. There is, therefore, a need for computationally efficient methods that build on models appropriately capturing interaction. We introduce a new methodology where we augment the interaction hypothesis with a set of simpler hypotheses that are tested, in order of their complexity, against a saturated alternative hypothesis representing interaction. This sequential testing provides an efficient way to reduce the number of non-interacting variant pairs before the final interaction test. We devise two different methods, one that relies on a priori estimated numbers of marginally associated variants to correct for multiple tests, and a second that does this adaptively. We show that our methodology in general has an improved statistical power in comparison to seven other methods, and, using the idea of closed testing, that it controls the family-wise error rate. We apply our methodology to genetic data from the PRO-CARDIS coronary artery disease case/control cohort and discover three distinct interactions. While analyses on simulated data suggest that the statistical power may suffice for an exhaustive search of all variant pairs in ideal cases, we explore strategies for a priori selecting subsets of variant pairs to test. Our new methodology facilitates identification of new disease-relevant interactions from existing and future genome-wide association data, which may involve genes with previously unknown association to the disease. Moreover, it enables construction of interaction networks that provide a systems biology view of complex diseases, serving as a basis for more comprehensive understanding of disease pathophysiology and its clinical consequences.
8.
  • Gertow, Karl (författare)
  • Fatty acid transport proteins : Candidate genes for the insulin resistance syndrome
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The insulin resistance syndrome is characterised by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and a typical dyslipidaemia, predisposing to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic disturbances of the insulin resistance syndrome include dysregulation of fatty acid (FA) homeostasis, for which adipose tissue serves a critical function. The fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1-6), of which FATP1 and FATP4 are proposed to be predominant in adipose tissue, are implicated in cellular FA uptake and acylCoA synthase (ACS) activity, thus potentially being regulators of FA homeostasis of relevance in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. In this thesis, genetic variation within the FATP1 and FATP4 genes and their expression in adipose tissue have been investigated in relation to markers of the insulin resistance syndrome, in order to evaluate FATP1 and FATP4 as candidate genes for this common syndrome. Among healthy middle-aged men, homozygotes for the rare A allele of an intron 8 G/A polymorphism in FATP1 showed elevated post-prandial lipaemia compared with G/A and G/G individuals, and carriers of the intron 8 A allele exhibited a smaller, more dense LDL particle phenotype. In vitro studies indicated that binding of nuclear factors and influence on transcriptional activity differed between the intron 8 alleles. These observations suggest that FATP l might play a role in post-prandial lipid metabolism of relevance for the development of the dyslipidaemia of the insulin resistance syndrome. Heterozygotes for a rare Gly209Ser polymorphism in FATP4 had lower body-mass index (BMI), and correcting for BMI, lower homeostasis model assessment index, systolic blood pressure, and insulin and triglyceride concentrations compared with common homozygotes, among healthy middle-aged men. A three-dimensional model of the FATP4 protein revealed that the variable residue 209 is exposed in a region potentially involved in protein-protein interactions, and indicated functional FATP4 regions with respect to substrate binding, ACS activity, and membrane association. These findings propose FATP4 as a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome, and structurally classifies FATP4 as an adenylateforming enzyme in accordance with its suggested ACS activity. In order to study the involvement of FATP1, FATP4 and other FA handling proteins in genetic and acquired obesity and insulin resistance, their adipose tissue mRNA expression levels were quantified in young monozygotic twins with a range of intra-pair differences in measures of obesity and insulin resistance, allowing discrimination between influences of genetic and non-genetic factors on the studied variables. FATP4 expression was found to be up-regulated in acquired obesity independent of genetic background. Moreover, mRNA levels of FATP4 and the FA transporter CD36 correlated with measures of obesity and insulin resistance influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors. These findings indicate specific FA handling protein expression related to obesity and insulin resistance, in particular suggesting a role of FATP4 in acquired obesity. To further investigate FATP1, FATP4 and other FA handling proteins in relation to obesity, insulin resistance and FA metabolism, their adipose tissue mRNA expression levels were analysed in healthy 63year-old men with detailed measures of FA composition in the serum non-esterified FA, serum phospholipid, and adipose tissue compartments. Acyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS1) expression was negatively correlated with measures of obesity and insulin resistance, whereas an opposite trend was observed for FATP4. Correlations of ACS1 and FATP4 expression levels with FA composition variables of proposed significance in relation to insulin sensitivity were observed. These findings suggest a role of ACS1 and FATP4 with respect to obesity and insulin resistance, via their involvement in FA trafficking and metabolism. Taken together, these studies indicate important roles of FATP1 and FATP4 in relation to obesity, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism, thereby proposing FATP1 and FATP4 as candidate genes for features of the insulin resistance syndrome.
9.
  • Gertow, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A Locus as a Determinant of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Disease Risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - American Heart Association. - 1942-325X. ; 5:6, s. 656-665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a widely accepted marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, large-scale investigations of genetic determinants of cIMT are sparse. Methods and Results-To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip was conducted in 3430 subjects with detailed ultrasonographic determinations of cIMT from the IMPROVE (Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) study. Segment-specific IMT measurements of common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries, and composite IMT variables considering the whole carotid tree (IMTmean, IMTmax, and IMTmean-max), were analyzed. A replication stage investigating 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with common carotid IMT was undertaken in 5 independent European cohorts (total n=11 590). A locus on chromosome 16 (lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4888378, intronic in CFDP1) was associated with cIMT at significance levels passing multiple testing correction at both stages (array-wide significant discovery P=6.75x10(-7) for IMTmax; replication P=7.24x10(-6) for common cIMT; adjustments for sex, age, and population substructure where applicable; minor allele frequency 0.43 and 0.41, respectively). The protective minor allele was associated with lower carotid plaque score in a replication cohort (P=0.04, n=2120) and lower coronary artery disease risk in 2 case-control studies of subjects with European ancestry (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.83 [0.77-0.90], P=6.53x10(-6), n=13 591; and 0.95 [0.92-0.98], P=1.83x10(-4), n= 82 297, respectively). Queries of human biobank data sets revealed associations of rs4888378 with nearby gene expression in vascular tissues (n=126-138). Conclusions-This study identified rs4888378 in the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A locus as a novel genetic determinant of cIMT and coronary artery disease risk in individuals of European descent. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5:656-665.)
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10.
  • Harrison, Seamus C., et al. (författare)
  • A gene-centric study of common carotid artery remodelling
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 226:2, s. 440-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Expansive remodelling is the process of compensatory arterial enlargement in response to atherosclerotic stimuli. The genetic determinants of this process are poorly characterized. Methods: Genetic association analyses of inter-adventitial common carotid artery diameter (ICCAD) in the IMPROVE study (n = 3427) using the Illumina 200k Metabochip was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met array-wide significance were taken forward for analysis in three further studies (n = 5704), and tested for association with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). Results: rs3768445 on Chromosome 1q24.3, in a cluster of protein coding genes (DNM3, PIGC, C1orf105) was associated with larger ICCAD in the IMPROVE study. For each copy of the rare allele carried, ICCAD was on average 0.13 mm greater (95% CI 0.08-0.18 mm, P = 8.2 x 10(-8)). A proxy SNP (rs4916251, R-2 = 0.99) did not, however, show association with ICCAD in three follow-up studies (P for replication = 0.29). There was evidence of interaction between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and rs4916251 on ICCAD in two of the cohorts studies suggesting that it plays a role in the remodelling response to atherosclerosis. In meta-analysis of 5 case-control studies pooling data from 5007 cases and 43,630 controls, rs4916251 was associated with presence of AAA 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.17, p = 2.8 x 10(-3), I-2 = 18.8, Q = 0.30). A proxy SNP, rs4916251 was also associated with increased expression of PIGC in aortic tissue, suggesting that this may the mechanism by which this locus affects vascular remodelling. Conclusions: Common variation at 1q24.3 is associated with expansive vascular remodelling and risk of AAA. These findings support a hypothesis that pathways involved in systemic vascular remodelling play a role in AAA development.
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