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Sökning: WFRF:(Ghiorzo P)

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  • Law, Matthew H, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 47:9, s. 987-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thirteen common susceptibility loci have been reproducibly associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). We report the results of an international 2-stage meta-analysis of CMM genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This meta-analysis combines 11 GWAS (5 previously unpublished) and a further three stage 2 data sets, totaling 15,990 CMM cases and 26,409 controls. Five loci not previously associated with CMM risk reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)), as did 2 previously reported but unreplicated loci and all 13 established loci. Newly associated SNPs fall within putative melanocyte regulatory elements, and bioinformatic and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data highlight candidate genes in the associated regions, including one involved in telomere biology.
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  • Helgadottir, H., et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of novel immunotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic melanoma with germline CDKN2A mutations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 57:5, s. 316-321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Inherited CDKN2A mutation is a strong risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Moreover, carriers have been found to have poor melanoma-specific survival. In this study, responses to novel immunotherapy agents in CDKN2A mutation carriers with metastatic melanoma were evaluated. Methods CDKN2A mutation carriers that have developed metastatic melanoma and undergone immunotherapy treatments were identified among carriers enrolled in follow-up studies for familial melanoma. The carriers' responses were compared with responses reported in phase III clinical trials for CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors. From publicly available data sets, melanomas with somatic CDKN2A mutation were analysed for association with tumour mutational load. Results Eleven of 19 carriers (58%) responded to the therapy, a significantly higher frequency than observed in clinical trials (p=0.03, binomial test against an expected rate of 37%). Further, 6 of the 19 carriers (32%) had complete response, a significantly higher frequency than observed in clinical trials (p=0.01, binomial test against an expected rate of 7%). In 118 melanomas with somatic CDKN2A mutations, significantly higher total numbers of mutations were observed compared with 761 melanomas without CDKN2A mutation (Wilcoxon test, p<0.001). Conclusion Patients with CDKN2A mutated melanoma may have improved immunotherapy responses due to increased tumour mutational load, resulting in more neoantigens and stronger antitumorous immune responses.
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  • Iles, Mark M., et al. (författare)
  • A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:4, s. 428-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the results of an association study of melanoma that is based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed an association between several SNPs in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined P = 3.6 x 10(-12), per-allele odds ratio for allele A = 1.16). In addition to identifying a new melanomasusceptibility locus, this is to our knowledge the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and exhibit no association with BMI. This suggests FTO's function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity.
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  • Barrett, Jennifer H., et al. (författare)
  • Fine mapping of genetic susceptibility loci for melanoma reveals a mixture of single variant and multiple variant regions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 136:6, s. 1351-1360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At least 17 genomic regions are established as harboring melanoma susceptibility variants, in most instances with genome-wide levels of significance and replication in independent samples. Based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data augmented by imputation to the 1,000 Genomes reference panel, we have fine mapped these regions in over 5,000 individuals with melanoma (mainly from the GenoMEL consortium) and over 7,000 ethnically matched controls. A penalized regression approach was used to discover those SNP markers that most parsimoniously explain the observed association in each genomic region. For the majority of the regions, the signal is best explained by a single SNP, which sometimes, as in the tyrosinase region, is a known functional variant. However in five regions the explanation is more complex. At the CDKN2A locus, for example, there is strong evidence that not only multiple SNPs but also multiple genes are involved. Our results illustrate the variability in the biology underlying genome-wide susceptibility loci and make steps toward accounting for some of the missing heritability. What's new? In genome-wide association studies, researchers identify genetic variants that frequently associate with a particular disease, though the variants identified may not contribute to the molecular cause of the disease. This study took a closer look at 17 regions associated with melanoma, fine mapping the regions both in people with melanoma and in healthy controls. Though single SNPs account for the association in some regions, they found that in a few regions, several SNPs - and possibly multiple genes - contributed to the association signal. These findings illustrate the importance of not overlooking the interaction between multiple genetic markers when conducting such studies.
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  • Barrett, Jennifer H., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies three new melanoma susceptibility loci
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1108-1113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a genome-wide association study for melanoma that was conducted by the GenoMEL Consortium. Our discovery phase included 2,981 individuals with melanoma and 1,982 study-specific control individuals of European ancestry, as well as an additional 6,426 control subjects from French or British populations, all of whom were genotyped for 317,000 or 610,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our analysis replicated previously known melanoma susceptibility loci. Seven new regions with at least one SNP with P < 10(-5) and further local imputed or genotyped support were selected for replication using two other genome-wide studies (from Australia and Texas, USA). Additional replication came from case-control series from the UK and The Netherlands. Variants at three of the seven loci replicated at P < 10(-3): an SNP in ATM (rs1801516, overall P = 3.4 x 10(-9)), an SNP in MX2 (rs45430, P = 2.9 x 10-9) and an SNP adjacent to CASP8 (rs13016963, P = 8.6 x 10(-10)). A fourth locus near CCND1 remains of potential interest, showing suggestive but inconclusive evidence of replication (rs1485993, overall P = 4.6 x 10(-7) under a fixed-effects model and P = 1.2 x 10(-3) under a random-effects model). These newly associated variants showed no association with nevus or pigmentation phenotypes in a large British case-control series.
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