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Sökning: WFRF:(Gialamas Spyros)

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  • Petridou, Eleni T., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating adiponectin levels and expression of adiponectin receptors in relation to lung cancer : two case-control studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Oncology. - 0030-2414 .- 1423-0232. ; 73:3-4, s. 261-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Decreased circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone and endogenous insulin sensitizer, have been associated with several obesity-related malignancies. Thiazolidinedione administration, which increases adiponectin levels, decreases risk for lung cancer. Whether circulating adiponectin levels are associated with lung cancer and/or whether adiponectin receptors are expressed in lung cancer remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 85 patients with incidental, histologically confirmed lung cancer and 170 healthy controls matched by gender and age. In a separate study, archival lung specimens from 134 cancerous and 8 noncancerous tissues were examined for relative expression of adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking, heavy alcohol intake and education were all associated with lung cancer risk, whereas serum adiponectin levels were not significantly different between cases and controls (multiple logistic regression, odds ratio per SD of adiponectin among controls: 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-2.02). Adiponectin levels were significantly lower (odds ratio: 0.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.78) among patients with advanced compared to those with limited disease stage. Expression of adiponectin receptors was apparent only in the cancerous lung tissue (64.2% AdipoR1 and 61.9% AdipoR2 in cancerous vs. 0% among noncancerous tissue). Specifically, AdipoR1 was expressed in all disease types, but no difference was noted with disease stage, whereas AdipoR2 was mainly expressed in the non-small cell carcinomas and more prominently in the advanced disease stage (80%). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating adiponectin levels are not different in cases of this malignancy - which seems to be unrelated to obesity and insulin resistance - compared to their healthy controls, though hormonal levels were significantly lower in advanced versus limited lung cancer. Both adiponectin receptors were expressed in cancerous lung tissue, but not in normal control tissue and there was a differential expression by disease stage. These findings should be further explored, especially in the context of the recently reported protective effect of thiazolidinediones in diabetic patients with lung cancer.</p>
  • Sergentanis, Theodoros N, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for childhood leukemia associated with maternal and paternal age
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 30:12, s. 1229-1261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subgroup analyses were performed by study design, geographical region, adjustment factors; sensitivity analyses and meta-regression analyses were also undertaken. 77 studies (69 case-control and eight cohort) were deemed eligible. Older maternal and paternal age were associated with increased risk for childhood ALL (pooled RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; pooled RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08, per 5 year increments, respectively). The association between maternal age and risk of childhood AML showed a U-shaped pattern, with symmetrically associated increased risk in the oldest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.06-1.43) and the youngest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.40) extremes. Lastly, only younger fathers were at increased risk of having a child with AML (pooled RR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.04-1.59). In conclusion, maternal and paternal age represents a meaningful risk factor for childhood leukemia, albeit of different effect size by leukemia subtype. Genetic and socio-economic factors may underlie the observed associations. Well-adjusted studies, scheduled by large consortia, are anticipated to satisfactorily address methodological issues, whereas the potential underlying genetic mechanisms should be elucidated by basic research studies.</p>
  • Skalkidou, Alkistis, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of endometrial cancer in women treated with ovary-stimulating drugs for subfertility
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. - 1469-493X .- 1469-493X. ; 3
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Medical treatment for subfertility principally involves the use of ovary-stimulating agents, including selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists, as well as human chorionic gonadotropin. Ovary-stimulating drugs may act directly or indirectly upon the endometrium (lining of the womb). Nulliparity and some causes of subfertility are recognized as risk factors for endometrial cancer.</p><p><strong>OBJECTIVES:</strong> To evaluate the association between the use of ovary-stimulating drugs for the treatment of subfertility and the risk of endometrial cancer.</p><p><strong>SEARCH METHODS:</strong> A search was performed in CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid) and Embase (Ovid) databases up to July 2016, using a predefined search algorithm. A search in OpenGrey, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, ZETOC and reports of major conferences was also performed. We did not impose language and publication status restrictions.</p><p><strong>SELECTION CRITERIA:</strong> Cohort and case-control studies reporting on the association between endometrial cancer and exposure to ovary-stimulating drugs for subfertility in adult women were deemed eligible.</p><p><strong>DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:</strong> Study characteristics and findings were extracted by review authors independently working in pairs. Inconsistency between studies was quantified by estimating I(2). Random-effects (RE) models were used to calculate pooled effect estimates. Separate analyses were performed, comparing treated subfertile women versus general population and/or unexposed subfertile women, to address the superimposition of subfertility as an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer.</p><p><strong>MAIN RESULTS:</strong> Nineteen studies were eligible for inclusion (1,937,880 participants). Overall, the quality of evidence was very low, due to serious risk of bias and indirectness (non-randomised studies (NRS), which was reflected on the GRADE assessment.Six eligible studies, including subfertile women, without a general population control group, found that exposure to any ovary-stimulating drug was not associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.37; 156,774 participants; very low quality evidence). Fifteen eligible studies, using a general population as the control group, found an increased risk after exposure to any ovary-stimulating drug (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.61; 1,762,829 participants; very low quality evidence).Five eligible studies, confined to subfertile women (92,849 participants), reported on exposure to clomiphene citrate; the pooled studies indicated a positive association ( RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.71; 88,618 participants; very low quality evidence), although only at high dosage (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.68; two studies; 12,073 participants) and at a high number of cycles (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.47; three studies; 13,757 participants). Four studies found an increased risk of endometrial cancer in subfertile women who required clomiphene citrate compared to a general population control group (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.00 to 3.48; four studies, 19,614 participants; very low quality evidence). These data do not tell us whether the association is due to the underlying conditions requiring clomiphene or the treatment itself.Using unexposed subfertile women as controls, exposure to gonadotropins was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.34; four studies; 17,769 participants; very low quality evidence). The respective analysis of two studies (1595 participants) versus the general population found no difference in risk (RR 2.12, 95% CI 0.79 to 5.64: very low quality evidence).Exposure to a combination of clomiphene citrate and gonadotropins, compared to unexposed subfertile women, produced no difference in risk of endometrial cancer (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.44; two studies; 6345 participants; very low quality evidence). However, when compared to the general population, an increased risk was found , suggesting that the key factor might be subfertility, rather than treatment (RR 2.99, 95% CI 1.53 to 5.86; three studies; 7789 participants; very low quality evidence).</p><p><strong>AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The synthesis of the currently available evidence does not allow us to draw robust conclusions, due to the very low quality of evidence. It seems that exposure to clomiphene citrate as an ovary-stimulating drug in subfertile women is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer, especially at doses greater than 2000 mg and high (more than 7) number of cycles. This may largely be due to underlying risk factors in women who need treatment with clomiphene citrate, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, rather than exposure to the drug itself. The evidence regarding exposure to gonadotropins was inconclusive.</p>
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