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  • Alsharari, Zayed, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of a 21-item food questionnaire with a 7-day dietary registration andbiomarkers of fat intake in a Swedish cohort of 60-year-old adults.
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • AbstractPurpose. To evaluate a 21-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in men participating in alarge cohort of Swedish 60-year-old adults (60YO).Methods. A self-reported FFQ (including 21 qualitative and semi-quantitative questions) was completed by >2000 men as part of a detailed baseline examination. A subsample of 301 men was included in a subsequent study in which detailed dietary habits were determined by a 7-day food record. Spearman rank correlations (r) and weighted Kappa (Kw) statistics were used to compare food intake categories in FFQ and 7-day food record. Furthermore, fatty acid (FA) composition in serum cholesteryl esters, assessed concurrent with the FFQ completion, was used to evaluate intakes of specific fat-rich foods from the FFQ.Results. We found good agreement between FFQ and food records for the reported intake ofalcohol (r=0.72, Kw=0.51), margarine (r=0.60, Kw=0.33), and fruit (r=0.49, Kw=0.31), reasonably good agreement for total fish (r=0.25, Kw=0.23), and egg (r=0.35, Kw=0.28), but poor agreement for other food groups such as bread, cheese, vegetables and cookies. In addition, serum proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and pentadecanoic acid were significantly higher in men with greater intakes of fish and cheese, respectively.Conclusion. In this evaluation of a short FFQ against 7-d food records and serum biomarkers of fat intake we found that the FFQ reasonably well reflected the intake of certain food groups (e.g. alcohol, fish, and margarine), but performed less accurate for other food groups. Firm and overallconclusions on validity are confined by the time-lag between the test and the reference method.
  • Alsharari, Zayed, et al. (författare)
  • Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity - A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA- desaturase and Delta 6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19-1.76), 4.06 (3.27-5.05), and 3.07 (2.51-3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Delta 5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32-0.48), 0.74 (0.61-0.89), 0.76 (0.62-0.93), and 0.40 (0.33-0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across sexes. In accordance with findings from short-term trials, abdominal obesity was more common among individuals with relatively high proportions of palmitic acid, whilst the contrary was true for linoleic acid. Further trials should examine the potential role of linoleic acid and its main dietary source, vegetable oils, in abdominal obesity prevention.
  • Carlsson, Axel C., et al. (författare)
  • Financial stress in late adulthood and diverse risks of incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in women and men
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2458. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Financial stress may have adverse health effects. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether having a cash margin and living alone or cohabiting is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Methods: Representative population-based prospective cohort study of 60-year-old women (n = 2065) and men (n = 1939) in Stockholm County, Sweden. National registers were used to identify cases of incident CVD (n = 375) and all-cause mortality (n = 385). The presence of a cash margin was determined in the questionnaire with the following question: Would you, if an unexpected situation occurred, be able to raise 10 000 SEK within a week? (This was equivalent to US$ 1250 in 1998). Results: Compared with cohabiting women with a cash margin, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher among cohabiting women without a cash margin, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.66). Using cohabiting men with cash margin as referent, single men without a cash margin were at an increased risk of both incident CVD and all-cause mortality: HR 2.84 (95% CI 1.61-4.99) and 2.78 (95% CI 1.69-4.56), respectively. Single men with cash margins still had an increased risk of all-cause mortality when compared with cohabiting men with a cash margin: HR 1.67 (95% CI 1.22-2.28). Conclusions: Financial stress may increase the risks of incident CVD and all-cause mortality, especially among men. Furthermore these risks are likely to be greater in men living in single households and in women without cash margins. Living with a partner seems to protect men, but not women, from ill-health associated with financial stress due to the lack of a cash margin.
  • Carrasquilla, Germán D, et al. (författare)
  • Does menopausal hormone therapy reduce myocardial infarction risk if initiated early after menopause? : A population-based case-control study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Menopause : The Journal of the North American Menopause. - 1072-3714 .- 1530-0374. ; 22:6, s. 598-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess whether the timing of menopausal hormone therapy initiation in relation to onset of menopause and hormone therapy duration is associated with myocardial infarction risk.METHODS: This study was based on the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study including 347 postmenopausal women who had experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 499 female control individuals matched for age and residential area. Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) for myocardial infarction were calculated using logistic regression.RESULTS: Early initiation of hormone therapy (within 10 y of onset of menopause or before age 60 y), compared with never use, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) after adjustments for lifestyle factors, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. For late initiation of hormone therapy, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.53-1.76). For hormone therapy duration of 5 years or more, compared with never use, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.35-1.18). For hormone therapy duration of less than 5 years, the odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.63-1.48).CONCLUSIONS: Neither the timing of hormone therapy initiation nor the duration of therapy is significantly associated with myocardial infarction risk.
  • Chernogubova, Ekaterina, et al. (författare)
  • Common and Low-Frequency Genetic Variants in the PCSK9 Locus Influence Circulating PCSK9 Levels
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 32:6, s. 1526-1534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that influences plasma low-density lipoprotein concentration and susceptibility to coronary heart disease. Circulating PCSK9 levels show considerable interindividual differences, but the factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown.Methods and Results- We analyzed circulating PCSK9 levels in 4 cohorts of healthy, middle-aged Swedes (n=5722) and found that PCSK9 levels varied over approximate to 50-fold range, showed a positive relationship with plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and were associated with plasma triglyceride, fibrinogen, insulin, and glucose concentrations. A genome-wide association study conducted in 2 cohorts (n=1215) failed to uncover common genetic variants robustly associated with variation in circulating PCSK9 level. As expected, the minor allele of the PCSK9 R46L variant was in all cohorts associated with reduced PCSK9 levels and decreased plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, but no relationship was observed with the plasma triglyceride concentration. Further mapping of the PCSK9 locus revealed a common polymorphism (rs2479415, minor allele frequency 43.9%), located approximate to 6 kb upstream from PCSK9, which is independently associated with increased circulating PCSK9 levels.Conclusion- Common and low-frequency genetic variants in the PCSK9 locus influence the pronounced interindividual variation in circulating PCSK9 levels in healthy, middle-aged white (predominantly Swedish) subjects.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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