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1.
  • Mindus, S., et al. (författare)
  • Asthma and COPD overlap (ACO) is related to a high burden of sleep disturbance and respiratory symptoms: Results from the RHINE and Swedish GA(2)LEN surveys
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The term Asthma and COPD Overlap (ACO) describes a condition where asthma and COPD overlap. We aimed to investigate associations between ACO and insomnia and respiratory symptoms, and to investigate the prevalence of ACO and the characteristics of subjects with ACO in two Northern European population studies. The study comprised 25 429 subjects aged >40 years who participated in one of two Northern European general population surveys. Both surveys included questions on asthma, COPD, respiratory and sleep-related symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awakening, and excessive daytime sleepiness. ACO was defined as having both self-reported asthma and COPD. The prevalence of ACO was 1.0%. The group with ACO had a higher prevalence of both insomnia and respiratory symptoms than subjects with only asthma or COPD. Having ACO was independently associated with a 2-3 times higher probability of having sleep-related symptoms as compared with the group without asthma or COPD, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking history and educational level (adjusted odds ratio 2.14-3.36, 95% CI). Subjects with ACO have a high prevalence of insomnia and respiratory symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the association between sleep-related symptoms and ACO.
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2.
  • Lytras, T., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposures and incidence of chronic bronchitis and related symptoms over two decades: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Occupational and environmental medicine. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 76:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an important chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related phenotype, with distinct clinical features and prognostic implications. Occupational exposures have been previously associated with increased risk of CB but few studies have examined this association prospectively using objective exposure assessment. We examined the effect of occupational exposures on CB incidence in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods: Population samples aged 20-44 were randomly selected in 1991-1993, and followed up twice over 20 years. Participants without chronic cough or phlegm at baseline were analysed. Coded job histories during follow-up were linked to the ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix, generating occupational exposure estimates to 12 categories of chemical agents. Their association with CB incidence over both follow-ups was examined with Poisson models using generalised estimating equations. Results: 8794 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria, contributing 13 185 observations. Only participants exposed to metals had a higher incidence of CB (relative risk (RR) 1.70, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.50) compared with non-exposed to metals. Mineral dust exposure increased the incidence of chronic phlegm (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.06). Incidence of chronic phlegm was increased in men exposed to gases/fumes and to solvents and in women exposed to pesticides. Conclusions: Occupational exposures are associated with chronic phlegm and CB, and the evidence is strongest for metals and mineral dust exposure. The observed differences between men and women warrant further investigation. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019.
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3.
  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and weight change are associated with adult lung function trajectories : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 75:4, s. 313-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between weight increase and excess lung function decline in young adults followed for short periods. We aimed to estimate lung function trajectories during adulthood from 20-year weight change profiles using data from the population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).METHODS: We included 3673 participants recruited at age 20-44 years with repeated measurements of weight and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) in three study waves (1991-93, 1999-2003, 2010-14) until they were 39-67 years of age. We classified subjects into weight change profiles according to baseline body mass index (BMI) categories and weight change over 20 years. We estimated trajectories of lung function over time as a function of weight change profiles using population-averaged generalised estimating equations.RESULTS: In individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obesity at baseline, moderate (0.25-1 kg/year) and high weight gain (>1 kg/year) during follow-up were associated with accelerated FVC and FEV1 declines. Compared with participants with baseline normal BMI and stable weight (±0.25 kg/year), obese individuals with high weight gain during follow-up had -1011 mL (95% CI -1.259 to -763) lower estimated FVC at 65 years despite similar estimated FVC levels at 25 years. Obese individuals at baseline who lost weight (<-0.25 kg/year) exhibited an attenuation of FVC and FEV1 declines. We found no association between weight change profiles and FEV1/FVC decline.CONCLUSION: Moderate and high weight gain over 20 years was associated with accelerated lung function decline, while weight loss was related to its attenuation. Control of weight gain is important for maintaining good lung function in adult life.
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4.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.
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6.
  • Bjornsdottir, E., et al. (författare)
  • Are symptoms of insomnia related to respiratory symptoms? Cross-sectional results from 10 European countries and Australia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To compare the prevalence of different insomnia subtypes among middle-aged adults from Europe and Australia and to explore the cross-sectional relationship between insomnia subtypes, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Design Cross-sectional population-based, multicentre cohort study. Setting 23 centres in 10 European countries and Australia. Methods We included 5800 participants in the third follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III (ECRHS III) who answered three questions on insomnia symptoms: difficulties falling asleep (initial insomnia), waking up often during the night (middle insomnia) and waking up early in the morning and not being able to fall back asleep (late insomnia). They also answered questions on smoking, general health and chronic diseases and had the following lung function measurements: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Changes in lung function since ECRHS I about 20 years earlier were also analysed. Main outcome measures Prevalence of insomnia subtypes and relationship to respiratory symptoms and function. Results Overall, middle insomnia (31.2%) was the most common subtype followed by late insomnia (14.2%) and initial insomnia (11.2%). The highest reported prevalence of middle insomnia was found in Iceland (37.2%) and the lowest in Australia (22.7%), while the prevalence of initial and late insomnia was highest in Spain (16.0% and 19.7%, respectively) and lowest in Denmark (4.6% and 9.2%, respectively). All subtypes of insomnia were associated with significantly higher reported prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Only isolated initial insomnia was associated with lower FEV1, whereas no association was found between insomnia and low FEV1/FVC ratio or decline in lung function. Conclusion There is considerable geographical variation in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Middle insomnia is most common especially in Iceland. Initial and late insomnia are most common in Spain. All insomnia subtypes are associated with respiratory symptoms, and initial insomnia is also associated with lower FEV1.
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7.
  • Bjornsdottir, E., et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory symptoms are more common among short sleepers independent of obesity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bmj Open Respiratory Research. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2052-4439. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Sleep length has been associated with obesity and various adverse health outcomes. The possible association of sleep length and respiratory symptoms has not been previously described. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep length and respiratory symptoms and whether such an association existed independent of obesity. Methods This is a multicentre, cross-sectional, population-based study performed in 23 centres in 10 different countries. Participants (n=5079, 52.3% males) were adults in the third follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III. The mean +/- SD age was 54.2 +/- 7.1 (age range 39-67 years). Information was collected on general and respiratory health and sleep characteristics. Results The mean reported nighttime sleep duration was 6.9 +/- 1.0 hours. Short sleepers (<6 hours per night) were n=387 (7.6%) and long sleepers (>= 9 hours per night) were n=271 (4.3%). Short sleepers were significantly more likely to report all respiratory symptoms (wheezing, waking up with chest tightness, shortness of breath, coughing, phlegm and bronchitis) except asthma after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), centre, marital status, exercise and smoking. Excluding BMI from the model covariates did not affect the results. Short sleep was related to 11 out of 16 respiratory and nasal symptoms among subjects with BMI >= 30 and 9 out of 16 symptoms among subjects with BMI <30. Much fewer symptoms were related to long sleep, both for subjects with BMI <30 and >= 30. Conclusions Our results show that short sleep duration is associated with many common respiratory symptoms, and this relationship is independent of obesity.
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8.
  • Canova, C., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of sensitisation to pollens and moulds on seasonal variations in asthma attacks
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 42:4, s. 935-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • No large study has described the seasonal variation in asthma attacks in population-based asthmatics in whom sensitisation to allergen has been measured. 2637 young adults with asthma living in 15 countries reported the months in which they usually had attacks of asthma and had skin-prick tests performed. Differences in seasonal patterns by sensitisation status were assessed using generalised estimating equations. Most young adults with asthma reported periods of the year when their asthma attacks were more common (range: 47% in Sweden to 86% in Spain). Seasonal variation in asthma was not modified by sensitisation to house dust mite or cat allergens. Asthmatics sensitised to grass, birch and Alternaria allergens had different seasonal patterns to those not sensitised to each allergen, with some geographical variation. In southern Europe, those sensitised to grass allergens were more likely to report attacks occurred in spring or summer than in winter (OR March/April 2.60, 95% CI 1.70-3.97; OR May/June 4.43, 95% CI 2.34-8.39) and smaller later peaks were observed in northern Europe (OR May/June 1.25, 95% CI 0.60-2.64; OR July/August 1.66, 95% CI 0.89-3.10). Asthmatics reporting hay fever but who were not sensitised to grass showed no seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in asthma attacks in young adults are common and are different depending on sensitisation to outdoor, but not indoor, allergens.
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9.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Emergency Hospital Visits in Association with Volcanic Ash, Dust Storms and Other Sources of Ambient Particles : A Time-Series Study in Reykjavik, Iceland
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 12:4, s. 4047-4059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Volcanic ash contributed significantly to particulate matter (PM) in Iceland following the eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. This study aimed to investigate the association between different PM sources and emergency hospital visits for cardiorespiratory causes from 2007 to 2012. Indicators of PM10 sources; “volcanic ash”, “dust storms”, or “other sources” (traffic, fireworks, and re-suspension) on days when PM10 exceeded the daily air quality guideline value of 50 µg/m3 were entered into generalized additive models, adjusted for weather, time trend and co-pollutants. The average number of daily emergency hospital visits was 10.5. PM10 exceeded the air quality guideline value 115 out of 2191 days; 20 days due to volcanic ash, 14 due to dust storms (two days had both dust storm and ash contribution) and 83 due to other sources. High PM10 levels from volcanic ash tended to be significantly associated with the emergency hospital visits; estimates ranged from 4.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.6, 9.2%) per day of exposure in unadjusted models to 7.3% (95% CI: −0.4, 15.5%) in adjusted models. Dust storms were not consistently associated with daily emergency hospital visits and other sources tended to show a negative association. We found some evidence indicating that volcanic ash particles were more harmful than particles from other sources, but the results were inconclusive and should be interpreted with caution.
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10.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 167, s. 416-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOX and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Umeå, and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, www.rhine.nu) cohorts of the seven study cities. Traffic proximity (distance to the nearest road with >10,000 vehicles per day) was calculated and vehicle exhaust (NOX) was modelled using dispersion models and land-use regression (LUR) data from 2011. Participants were asked a question about self-reported traffic intensity near bedroom window and another about traffic noise exposure at the residence. The data were analysed using rank correlation (Kendall's tau) and inter-rater agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between tertiles of modelled NOX and traffic proximity tertile and traffic proximity categories (0–150 metres (m), 150–200 m, >300 m) in each centre. Data on variables of interest were available for 50–99% of study participants per each cohort. Mean modelled NOX levels were between 6.5 and 16.0 μg/m3; median traffic intensity was between 303 and 10,750 m in each centre. In each centre, 7.7–18.7% of respondents reported exposure to high traffic intensity and 3.6–16.3% of respondents reported high exposure to traffic noise. Self-reported residential traffic exposure had low or no correlation with modelled exposure and traffic proximity in all centres, although results were statistically significant (tau = 0.057–0.305). Self-reported residential traffic noise correlated weakly (tau = 0.090–0.255), with modelled exposure in all centres except Reykjavik. Modelled NOX had the highest correlations between self-reported and modelled traffic exposure in five of seven centres, traffic noise exposure had the highest correlation with traffic proximity in tertiles in three centres. Self-reported exposure to high traffic intensity and traffic noise at each participant's residence had low or weak although statistically significant correlations with modelled vehicle exhaust pollution levels and traffic proximity. © 2017
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