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  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • Generation of trisomies in cancer cells by multipolar mitosis and incomplete cytokinesis.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 107:47, s. 20489-20493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One extra chromosome copy (i.e., trisomy) is the most common type of chromosome aberration in cancer cells. The mechanisms behind the generation of trisomies in tumor cells are largely unknown, although it has been suggested that dysfunction of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) leads to an accumulation of trisomies through failure to correctly segregate sister chromatids in successive cell divisions. By using Wilms tumor as a model for cancers with trisomies, we now show that trisomic cells can form even in the presence of a functional SAC through tripolar cell divisions in which sister chromatid separation proceeds in a regular fashion, but cytokinesis failure nevertheless leads to an asymmetrical segregation of chromosomes into two daughter cells. A model for the generation of trisomies by such asymmetrical cell division accurately predicted several features of clones having extra chromosomes in vivo, including the ratio between trisomies and tetrasomies and the observation that different trisomies found in the same tumor occupy identical proportions of cells and colocalize in tumor tissue. Our findings provide an experimentally validated model explaining how multiple trisomies can occur in tumor cells that still maintain accurate sister chromatid separation at metaphase-anaphase transition and thereby physiologically satisfy the SAC.
  • Holmquist Mengelbier, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Deletions of 16q in Wilms Tumors Localize to Blastemal-Anaplastic Cells and Are Associated with Reduced Expression of the IRXB Renal Tubulogenesis Gene Cluster.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - American Society for Investigative Pathology. - 1525-2191. ; 177:5, s. 2609-2621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wilms tumor is the most common pediatric renal neoplasm, but few molecular prognostic markers have been identified for this tumor. Somatic deletion in the long arm of chromosome 16 (16q) is known to predict a less favorable outcome in Wilms tumor, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. We show that 16q deletions are typically confined to immature anaplastic-blastic tumor elements, while deletions are absent in maturing tumor components. The smallest region of deletion overlap mapped to a 1.8-Mb segment containing the IRXB gene cluster including IRX3, IRX5, and IRX6, of which IRX3 is a recently identified regulator of tubular maturation during nephrogenesis. Tumors with 16q deletion showed a lower overall mRNA expression of IRXB genes, and 16q-deleted tumor cells failed to express IRX3 while it was expressed in differentiating tubular tumor elements with intact 16q. Consistent with a role for IRX3 in tubular differentiation, gene sets linked to Notch signaling, Rho signaling, and ion channel activity were enriched in tumors with high IRX3 expression, while WTs with low expression were enriched for gene sets linked to cell cycle progression. Low mRNA levels of IRXB genes were associated with diffuse anaplasia, high-stage disease, and death. A disturbed balance between tubular differentiation and self-renewal of anaplastic-blastic elements may thus be one mechanism linking 16q deletion to adverse outcome in Wilms tumor.
  • Holmquist Mengelbier, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Intratumoral genome diversity parallels progression and predicts outcome in pediatric cancer.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic differences among neoplastic cells within the same tumour have been proposed to drive cancer progression and treatment failure. Whether data on intratumoral diversity can be used to predict clinical outcome remains unclear. We here address this issue by quantifying genetic intratumoral diversity in a set of chemotherapy-treated childhood tumours. By analysis of multiple tumour samples from seven patients we demonstrate intratumoral diversity in all patients analysed after chemotherapy, typically presenting as multiple clones within a single millimetre-sized tumour sample (microdiversity). We show that microdiversity often acts as the foundation for further genome evolution in metastases. In addition, we find that microdiversity predicts poor cancer-specific survival (60%; P=0.009), independent of other risk factors, in a cohort of 44 patients with chemotherapy-treated childhood kidney cancer. Survival was 100% for patients lacking microdiversity. Thus, intratumoral genetic diversity is common in childhood cancers after chemotherapy and may be an important factor behind treatment failure.
  • Lee, Charles, et al. (författare)
  • Limitations of chromosome classification by multicolor karyotyping
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 68:4, s. 1043-1047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multicolor karyotyping technologies, such as spectral karyotyping (SKY) (Schrock et al.1996; Liyanage et al. 1996) and multiplex (M-) FISH (Speicher et al. 1996), have proved to be extremely useful in prenatal, postnatal, and cancer cytogenetics. However, these technologies have inherent limitations that, in certain situations, may result in chromosomal misclassification. In this report, we present nine cases, which fall into five categories, in which multicolor karyotyping has produced erroneous interpretations. Most errors appear to have a similar mechanistic basis.
  • Lundberg, Gisela, et al. (författare)
  • Alternative lengthening of telomeres-An enhanced chromosomal instability in aggressive non-MYCN amplified and telomere elongated neuroblastomas.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1045-2257. ; 50:4, s. 250-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Telomere length alterations are known to cause genomic instability and influence clinical course in several tumor types, but have been little investigated in neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common childhood tumors. In the present study, telomere-dependent chromosomal instability and telomere length were determined in six NB cell lines and fifty tumor biopsies. The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway was assayed by scoring ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (APBs). We found a reduced probability of overall survival for tumors with increased telomere length compared to cases with reduced or unchanged telomere length. In non-MYCN amplified tumors, a reduced or unchanged telomere length was associated with 100% overall survival. Tumor cells with increased telomere length had an elevated frequency of APBs, consistent with activation of the ALT pathway. The vast majority of tumor biopsies and cell lines exhibited an elevated rate of anaphase bridges, suggesting telomere-dependent chromosomal instability. This was more pronounced in tumors with increased telomere length. In cell lines, there was a close correlation between lack of telomere-protective TTAGGG-repeats, anaphase bridging, and remodeling of oncogene sequences. Thus, telomere-dependent chromosomal instability is highly prevalent in NB, and may contribute to the complexity of genomic alterations as well as therapy resistance in the absence of MYCN amplification and in this tumor type. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Snape, Katie, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in CEP57 cause mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:6, s. 527-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using exome sequencing and a variant prioritization strategy that focuses on loss-of-function variants, we identified biallelic, loss-of-function CEP57 mutations as a cause of constitutional mosaic aneuploidies. CEP57 is a centrosomal protein and is involved in nucleating and stabilizing microtubules. Our findings indicate that these and/or additional functions of CEP57 are crucial for maintaining correct chromosomal number during cell division.
  • Walther, Charles, et al. (författare)
  • Cytogenetic and single nucleotide polymorphism array findings in soft tissue tumors in infants
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer genetics. - Elsevier. - 2210-7762. ; 206:7-8, s. 299-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soft tissue tumors in children under one year of age (infants) are rare. The etiology is usually unknown, with external factors or congenital birth defects and hereditary syndromes being recognized in only a small proportion of the cases. We ascertained the cytogenetic findings in 16 infants from whom tumor tissue had been obtained during a 25-year period. In eight of them, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analyses could also be performed. No constitutional chromosome aberrations were detected, and assessment of clinical files did not reveal any congenital or later anatomical defects. Three tumors--one infantile fibrosarcoma, one embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, and one angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH)--had abnormal karyotypes. As the AFH had an exchange between chromosome arms 12p and 15q, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed, unexpectedly revealing an ETV6/NTRK3 fusion. Three of the eight tumors, including the AFH with an abnormal karyotype, analyzed by SNP array showed aberrations (loss of heterozygosity or imbalances). The present series suggests that the addition of array-based technologies is valuable for detecting underlying pathogenetic mechanisms.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • A case of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with a ring chromosome 5 and a rearranged chromosome 22 containing amplified COL1A1 and PDGFB sequences
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Cancer Letters. - Elsevier. - 0304-3835. ; 133:2, s. 34-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a cutaneous tumour of borderline malignancy, the cytogenetic features of which include the translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13) or, more commonly, supernumerary ring chromosomes containing material from 17q22 and 22q13. These rearrangements result in the COL1A1/PDGFB fusion gene. Here, we describe a case of DFSP displaying a ring chromosome 5 together with a large marker chromosome composed of chromosome 22 alphoid DNA, material from distal 12q and amplified COL1A1 and PDGFB sequences. This is the first case of DFSP with multiple copies of COL1A1 and PDGFB not confined to ring chromosomes, showing that DFSP is similar to other borderline malignant mesenchymal tumours, where rings and giant markers are alternative vehicles for amplified material.
  • Gisselsson Nord, David, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic bottlenecks and the hazardous game of population reduction in cell line based research.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - Academic Press. - 1090-2422. ; 316, s. 3379-3386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Established tumour cell lines are ubiquitous tools in research, but their representativity is often debated. One possible caveat is that many cell lines are derived from cells with genomic instability, potentially leading to genotype changes in vitro. We applied SNP-array analysis to an established tumour cell line (WiT49). Even though WiT49 exhibited chromosome segregation errors in 30% of cell divisions, only a single chromosome segment exhibited a shift in copy number after 20 population doublings in culture. In contrast, sub-populations derived from single cells expanded for an equal number of population doublings showed on average 5.8 and 8.9 altered segments compared to the original culture and to each other, respectively. Most copy number variants differentiating these single cell clones corresponded to pre-existing variations in the original culture. Furthermore, no sub-clonal variation was detected in any of the populations derived from single cells. This indicates that genetic bottlenecks resulting from population reduction poses a higher threat to genetic representativity than prolonged culture per se, even in cell lines with a high rate of genomic instability. Genetic bottlenecks should therefore be considered a potential caveat in all studies involving sub-cloning, transfection and other conditions leading to a temporary reduction in cell number.
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