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  • Knudsen, A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Life expectancy and disease burden in the Nordic countries: results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lancet Public Health. - : Elsevier. - 2468-2667. ; 4:12, s. E658-E669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Nordic countries have commonalities in gender equality, economy, welfare, and health care, but differ in culture and lifestyle, which might create country-wise health differences. This study compared life expectancy, disease burden, and risk factors in the Nordic region. Methods Life expectancy in years and age-standardised rates of overall, cause-specific, and risk factor-specific estimates of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were analysed in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. Data were extracted for Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden (ie, the Nordic countries), and Greenland, an autonomous area of Denmark. Estimates were compared with global, high-income region, and Nordic regional estimates, including Greenland. Findings All Nordic countries exceeded the global life expectancy; in 2017, the highest life expectancy was in Iceland among females (85.9 years [95% uncertainty interval [UI] 85.5-86.4] vs 75.6 years [75.3-75.9] globally) and Sweden among males (80.8 years [80.2-81.4] vs 70.5 years [70.1-70.8] globally). Females (82.7 years [81.9-83.4]) and males (78.8 years [78.1-79.5]) in Denmark and males in Finland (78.6 years [77.8-79.2]) had lower life expectancy than in the other Nordic countries. The lowest life expectancy in the Nordic region was in Greenland (females 77.2 years [76.2-78.0], males 70.8 years [70.3-71.4]). Overall disease burden was lower in the Nordic countries than globally, with the lowest age-standardised DALY rates among Swedish males (18 555.7 DALYs [95% UI 15 968.6-21 426.8] per 100 000 population vs 35 834.3 DALYs [33 218.2-38 740.7] globally) and Icelandic females (16 074.1 DALYs [13 216.4-19 240.8] vs 29 934.6 DALYs [26 981.9-33 211.2] globally). Greenland had substantially higher DALY rates (26 666.6 DALYs [23 478.4-30 218.8] among females, 33 101.3 DALYs [30 182.3-36 218.6] among males) than the Nordic countries. Country variation was primarily due to differences in causes that largely contributed to DALYs through mortality, such as ischaemic heart disease. These causes dominated male disease burden, whereas non-fatal causes such as low back pain were important for female disease burden. Smoking and metabolic risk factors were high-ranking risk factors across all countries. DALYs attributable to alcohol use and smoking were particularly high among the Danes, as was alcohol use among Finnish males. Interpretation Risk factor differences might drive differences in life expectancy and disease burden that merit attention also in high-income settings such as the Nordic countries. Special attention should be given to the high disease burden in Greenland. Copyright (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Halonen, Jaana, et al. (författare)
  • Pathways from parental mental disorders to offspring's work disability due to depressive or anxiety disorders in early adulthood—The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Depression and anxiety (Print). - 1091-4269 .- 1520-6394. ; 36:4, s. 305-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Parental mental disorders have been shown to predict offspring's mental health problems. We examined whether pathways from parental mental disorders to offspring's psychiatric work disability in early adulthood are mediated through offspring's mental disorders and social disadvantage in adolescence.Methods: Study population consisted of the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort. Data on parents’ psychiatric care or work disability due to mental diagnosis between 1987 and 2000 and the cohort participants’ health and social factors between 2001 and 2005 were derived from administrative national registers. From 2006 through 2015, 52,182 cohort participants were followed for admittance of psychiatric work disability due to depressive or anxiety disorders. First, we applied a pathway analysis to examine the occurrence of each path. We then used mediation analysis to assess the proportion of association between parental mental disorders and work disability mediated by offspring's health and social disadvantage.Results: The pathway model indicated that the association from parental mental disorders to offspring's work disability due to depressive or anxiety disorder is through mental disorders and social disadvantage in adolescence. Odds Ratio for the total effect of parental mental disorders on offspring's psychiatric work disability was 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46–2.34) in the model including offspring's mental disorders that mediated this association by 35%. Corresponding results were 1.86 (95% CI 1.47–2.35) and 28% for social disadvantage in adolescence.Conclusions: These findings suggest that intergenerational determination of work disability due to mental disorders could be addressed by actions supporting mental health and social circumstances in adolescence.
  • Troisi, R., et al. (författare)
  • The role of pregnancy, perinatal factors and hormones in maternal cancer risk : a review of the evidence
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 283:5, s. 430-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An understanding of the origin of cancer is critical for cancer prevention and treatment. Complex biological mechanisms promote carcinogenesis, and there is increasing evidence that pregnancy related exposures influence foetal growth cell division and organ functioning and may have a longlasting impact on health and disease susceptibility in the mothers and offspring. Nulliparity is an established risk factor for breast, ovarian, endometrial and possibly pancreatic cancer, whilst the risk of kidney cancer is elevated in parous compared with nulliparous women. For breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, each pregnancy provides an additional risk reduction. The associations of parity with thyroid and colorectal cancers are uncertain. The timing of reproductive events is also recognized to be important. Older age at first birth is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and older age at last birth is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. The risks of breast and endometrial cancers increase with younger age at menarche and older age at menopause. The mechanisms, and hormone profiles, that underlie alterations in maternal cancer risk are not fully understood and may differ by malignancy. Linking health registries and pooling of data in the Nordic countries have provided opportunities to conduct epidemiologic research of pregnancy exposures and subsequent cancer. We review the maternal risk of several malignancies, including those with a well-known hormonal aetiology and those with less established relationships. The tendency for women to have fewer pregnancies and at later ages, together with the age-dependent increase in the incidence of most malignancies, is expected to affect the incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer.
  • Wedenoja, Satu, et al. (författare)
  • Fetal HLA-G mediated immune tolerance and interferon response in preeclampsia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 2352-3964. ; 59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fetal immune tolerance is crucial for pregnancy success. We studied the link between preeclampsia, a severe pregnancy disorder with uncertain pathogenesis, and fetal human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) and other genes regulating maternal immune responses.Methods: We assessed sex ratios and regulatory HLA-G haplotypes in population cohorts and series of preeclampsia and stillbirth. We studied placental mRNA expression of 136 genes by sequencing and HLA-G and interferon alpha (IFNα) protein expression by immunohistochemistry.Findings: We found underrepresentation of males in preeclamptic births, especially those delivered preterm or small for gestational age. Balancing selection at HLA-G associated with the sex ratio, stillbirth, and preeclampsia. We observed downregulation of HLA-G, its receptors, and many other tolerogenic genes, and marked upregulation of IFNA1 in preeclamptic placentas.Interpretation: These findings indicate that an evolutionary trade-off between immune tolerance and protection against infections at the maternal-fetal interface promotes genetic diversity in fetal HLA-G, thereby affecting survival, preeclampsia, and sex ratio. We highlight IFNA1 as a potential mediator of preeclampsia and a target for therapeutic trials. 
  • Aarnio, Karoliina, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of pregnancies and deliveries before and after ischaemic stroke
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. - 2396-9881. ; 2:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Limited data exist on the outcome of pregnancies and deliveries in women with ischaemic stroke. We investigated the incidence of pregnancy- and delivery-related complications in women with ischaemic stroke before and after pregnancy compared with stroke-free matched controls. Patients and methods: Of our 1008 consecutive patients aged 15–49 years with first-ever ischaemic stroke, 1994– 2007, we included women with pregnancy data before or after stroke recorded in the Medical Birth Register (MBR) (n¼152), and for them searched stroke-free controls matched by age, parity, year of birth, residential area and multiplicity (n¼608). Data on hospital admissions and deaths (1987–2014) came from national health registries. Poisson regression mixed models allowed comparison of the incidence of complications. Results: A total of 124 stroke mothers had 207 singleton pregnancies before and 45 mothers 68 pregnancies after stroke. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the composite outcome of pregnancy and delivery complications adjusted for socioeconomic status and maternal smoking was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–2.03, p¼0.05) for pre-stroke mothers, and 1.09 (95% CI 0.66–1.78) for post-stroke mothers, compared with matched controls. Similarly, the adjusted IRR for post-stroke hospital admission during pregnancy was 1.85 (95% CI 1.03–3.31). The IRR for perinatal death of the child was 3.43 (95% CI 0.57–20.53) before and 8.88 (95% CI 0.81–97.95) after stroke. Discussion and conclusions: Compared with stroke-free mothers, we found a higher incidence of pregnancy- and delivery-related complications in mothers with ischaemic stroke. Larger studies are needed to verify our results.
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