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1.
  • Aarnio, Karoliina, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of pregnancies and deliveries before and after ischaemic stroke
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. ; 2:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Limited data exist on the outcome of pregnancies and deliveries in women with ischaemic stroke. We investigated the incidence of pregnancy- and delivery-related complications in women with ischaemic stroke before and after pregnancy compared with stroke-free matched controls. Patients and methods: Of our 1008 consecutive patients aged 15–49 years with first-ever ischaemic stroke, 1994– 2007, we included women with pregnancy data before or after stroke recorded in the Medical Birth Register (MBR) (n¼152), and for them searched stroke-free controls matched by age, parity, year of birth, residential area and multiplicity (n¼608). Data on hospital admissions and deaths (1987–2014) came from national health registries. Poisson regression mixed models allowed comparison of the incidence of complications. Results: A total of 124 stroke mothers had 207 singleton pregnancies before and 45 mothers 68 pregnancies after stroke. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the composite outcome of pregnancy and delivery complications adjusted for socioeconomic status and maternal smoking was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–2.03, p¼0.05) for pre-stroke mothers, and 1.09 (95% CI 0.66–1.78) for post-stroke mothers, compared with matched controls. Similarly, the adjusted IRR for post-stroke hospital admission during pregnancy was 1.85 (95% CI 1.03–3.31). The IRR for perinatal death of the child was 3.43 (95% CI 0.57–20.53) before and 8.88 (95% CI 0.81–97.95) after stroke. Discussion and conclusions: Compared with stroke-free mothers, we found a higher incidence of pregnancy- and delivery-related complications in mothers with ischaemic stroke. Larger studies are needed to verify our results.
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2.
  • Aberg, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in long-term mortality among liver transplant recipients and the general population: A population-based Nordic study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). - 1527-3350. ; 61:2, s. 668-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dramatic improvement in first-year outcomes post-liver transplantation (LT) has shifted attention to long-term survival, where efforts are now needed to achieve improvement. Understanding the causes for premature death is a prerequisite for improving long-term outcome. Overall and cause-specific mortality of 3299 Nordic LT patients (1985-2009) having survived 1 year post-LT were divided by expected rates in the general population, adjusted for age, sex, calendar time, and country to yield standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Data came from the Nordic Liver-Transplant Registry and WHO mortality-indicator database. Stagnant patient survival rates >1 year post-LT were 21% lower at 10 years than expected survival for the general population. Overall SMR for death before age 75 (premature mortality) was 5.8 (95%CI 5.4-6.3), with improvement from 1985-1999 to 2000-2010 in hepatitis C (HCV) (SMR change 23.1-9.2), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (SMR 38.4-18.8), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (SMR 11.0-4.2), and deterioration in alcoholic liver disease (8.3-24.0) and acute liver failure (ALF) (5.9-7.6). SMRs for cancer and liver disease (recurrent or transplant-unrelated disease) were elevated in all indications except primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Absolute mortality rates underestimated the elevated premature mortality from infections (SMR 22-693) and kidney disease (SMR 13-45) across all indications, and from suicide in HCV and ALF. SMR for cardiovascular disease was significant only in PBC and alcoholic liver disease, owing to high mortality in the general population. Transplant-specific events caused 16% of deaths. Conclusion: standardized premature mortality provided an improved picture of long-term post-LT outcome, showing improvement over time in some indications, not revealed by overall absolute mortality rates. Causes with high premature mortality (infections, cancer, kidney and liver disease, and suicide) merit increased attention in clinical patient follow-up and future research. (Hepatology 2014;).
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3.
  • Bergholt, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal age and risk of cesarean section in women with induced labor at term—A Nordic register-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6349. ; 99:2, s. 283-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Over the last decades, induction of labor has increased in many countries along with increasing maternal age. We assessed the effects of maternal age and labor induction on cesarean section at term among nulliparous and multiparous women without previous cesarean section. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective national registry-based study from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden including 3 398 586 deliveries between 2000 and 2011. We investigated the impact of age on cesarean section among 196 220 nulliparous and 188 158 multiparous women whose labor was induced, had single cephalic presentation at term, and no previous cesarean section. Confounders comprised country, time-period, and gestational age. Results: In nulliparous women with induced labor the rate of cesarean section increased from 14.0% in women less than 20 years of age to 39.9% in women 40 years and older. Compared with women aged 25-29 years, the corresponding relative risks were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.57 to 0.64) and 1.72 (95% CI 1.66 to 1.79). In multiparous induced women the risk of cesarean section was 3.9% in women less than 20 years rising to 9.1% in women 40 years and older. Compared with women aged 25-29 years, the relative risks were 0.86 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.37) and 1.98 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.12), respectively. There were minimal confounding effects of country, time-period, and gestational age on risk for cesarean section. Conclusions: Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of cesarean section in women undergoing labor induction with a single cephalic presentation at term without a previous cesarean section. The absolute risk of cesarean section is 3-5 times higher across 5-year age groups in nulliparous relative to multiparous women having induced labor.
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4.
  • Colmorn, Lotte B., et al. (författare)
  • Mode of first delivery and severe maternal complications in the subsequent pregnancy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6349. ; 96:9, s. 1053-1062
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Severe obstetric complications increase with the number of previous cesarean deliveries. In the Nordic countries most women have two children. We present the risk of severe obstetric complications at the delivery following a first elective or emergency cesarean and the risk by intended mode of second delivery. Material and methods: A two-year population-based data collection of severe maternal complications in women with two deliveries in the Nordic countries (n = 213 518). Denominators were retrieved from the national medical birth registers. Results: Of 35 450 first cesarean deliveries (17%), 75% were emergency and 25% elective. Severe complications at second delivery were more frequent in women with a first cesarean than with a first vaginal delivery, and rates of abnormally invasive placenta, uterine rupture and severe postpartum hemorrhage were higher after a first elective than after a first emergency cesarean delivery [relative risk (RR) 4.1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.0-8.1; RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5; RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5, respectively]. A first cesarean was associated with up to 97% of severe complications in the second pregnancy. Induction of labor was associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture and severe hemorrhage. Conclusion: Elective repeat cesarean can prevent complete uterine rupture at the second delivery, whereas the risk of severe obstetric hemorrhage, abnormally invasive placenta and peripartum hysterectomy is unchanged by the intended mode of second delivery in women with a first cesarean. Women with a first elective vs. an emergency cesarean have an increased risk of severe complications in the second pregnancy.
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5.
  • Colmorn, Lotte B., et al. (författare)
  • The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0412. ; 94:7, s. 734-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Design: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. Setting: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Sample and methods: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Main outcome measures: Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. Results: The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. Conclusion: The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities.
6.
  • Ginström Ernstad, Erica, et al. (författare)
  • Perinatal and maternal outcome after vitrification of blastocysts: a Nordic study in singletons from the CoNARTaS group.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human reproduction (Oxford, England). - 1460-2350. ; 34:11, s. 2282-2289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Is transfer of vitrified blastocysts associated with higher perinatal and maternal risks compared with slow-frozen cleavage stage embryos and fresh blastocysts?Transfer of vitrified blastocysts is associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (PTB) when compared with slow-frozen cleavage stage embryos and with a higher risk of a large baby, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDPs) and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) but a lower risk of placenta previa when compared with fresh blastocysts.Transfer of frozen-thawed embryos (FETs) plays a central role in modern fertility treatment, limiting the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. Following FET, several studies report a lower risk of PTB, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) yet a higher risk of fetal macrosomia and large for gestational age (LGA) compared with fresh embryos. In recent years, the introduction of new freezing techniques has increased treatment success. The slow-freeze technique combined with cleavage stage transfer has been replaced by vitrification and blastocyst transfer. Only few studies have compared perinatal and maternal outcomes after vitrification and slow-freeze and mainly in cleavage stage embryos, with most studies indicating similar outcomes in the two groups. Studies on perinatal and maternal outcomes following vitrified blastocysts are limited.This registry-based cohort study includes singletons born after frozen-thawed and fresh transfers following the introduction of vitrification in Sweden and Denmark, in 2002 and 2009, respectively. The study includes 3650 children born after transfer of vitrified blastocysts, 8123 children born after transfer of slow-frozen cleavage stage embryos and 4469 children born after transfer of fresh blastocysts during 2002-2015. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in singletons born after vitrified blastocyst transfer were compared with singletons born after slow-frozen cleavage stage transfer and singletons born after fresh blastocyst transfer. Main outcomes included PTB, LBW, macrosomia, HDP and placenta previa.Data were obtained from the CoNARTaS (Committee of Nordic ART and Safety) group. Based on national registries in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway, the CoNARTaS cohort includes all children born after ART treatment in public and private clinics 1984-2015. Outcomes were assessed with logistic multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for the country and year of birth, maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, parental educational level, fertilisation method (IVF/ICSI), single embryo transfer, number of gestational sacs and the child's sex.A higher risk of PTB (<37 weeks) was noted in the vitrified blastocyst group compared with the slow-frozen cleavage stage group (adjusted odds ratio, aOR [95% CI], 1.33 [1.09-1.62]). No significant differences were observed for LBW (<2500 g), SGA, macrosomia (≥4500 g) and LGA when comparing the vitrified blastocyst with the slow-frozen cleavage stage group. For maternal outcomes, no significant difference was seen in the risk of HDP, placenta previa, placental abruption and PPH in the vitrified blastocyst versus the slow frozen cleavage stage group, although the precision was limited.When comparing vitrified and fresh blastocysts, we found higher risks of macrosomia (≥4500 g) aOR 1.77 [1.35-2.31] and LGA aOR 1.48 [1.18-1.84]. Further, the risks of HDP aOR 1.47 [1.19-1.81] and PPH aOR 1.68 [1.39-2.03] were higher in singletons born after vitrified compared with fresh blastocyst transfer while the risks of SGA aOR 0.58 [0.44-0.78] and placenta previa aOR 0.35 [0.25-0.48] were lower.Since vitrification was introduced simultaneously with blastocyst transfer in Sweden and Denmark, it was not possible to explore the effect of vitrification per se in this study.The results from the change of strategy to vitrification of blastocysts are reassuring, indicating that the freezing technique per se has no major influence on the perinatal and maternal outcomes. The higher risk of PTB may be related to the extended embryo culture rather than vitrification.The study is part of the ReproUnion Collaborative study, co-financed by the European Union, Interreg V ÖKS. The study was also financed by grants from the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils, the ALF agreement (LUA/ALF 70940), Hjalmar Svensson Research Foundation and NordForsk (project 71 450). There are no conflicts of interest to declare.ISRCTN11780826.
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7.
  • Jakobsson, Maija, et al. (författare)
  • Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: results from the prospective Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0412. ; 94:7, s. 745-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Design:Nordic collaborative study. Population605362 deliveries across the five Nordic countries. Methods: We collected data prospectively from patients undergoing emergency peripartum hysterectomy within 7days of delivery from medical birth registers and hospital discharge registers. Control populations consisted of all other women delivering on the same units during the same time period. Main outcome measures: Emergency peripartum hysterectomy rate. Results: The total number of emergency peripartum hysterectomies reached 211, yielding an incidence rate of 3.5/10000 (95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0) births. Finland had the highest prevalence (5.1) and Norway the lowest (2.9). Primary indications included an abnormally invasive placenta (n=91, 43.1%), atonic bleeding (n=69, 32.7%), uterine rupture (n=31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n=12, 5.7%), and other indications (n=8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. The number of stillbirths was substantially high (70/1000), but the case fatality rate stood at 0.47% (one death, maternal mortality rate 0.17/100000 deliveries). Conclusions: A combination of prospective data collected from clinicians and information gathered from register-based databases can yield valuable data, improving the registration accuracy for rare, near-miss cases. However, proper and uniform clinical guidelines for the use of well-defined international diagnostic codes are still needed.
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8.
  • Khatibi, Ali, et al. (författare)
  • Obstetric and neonatal outcome in women aged 50 years and up: A collaborative, Nordic population-based study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. - 1872-7654. ; 224, s. 17-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Childbearing at extremely advanced maternal age is a globally increasing trend, but only a few studies have described the outcomes of these pregnancies. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of childbearing at age 50 and up in the Nordic countries, as well as to examine the frequency of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.A descriptive population-based study was designed. Data from 1991 to 2013 were collected from the Medical Birth Registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We investigated the occurrence of antepartum, delivery and neonatal outcomes.A total of 170 deliveries, in 141 singleton and 29 multiple pregnancies, were identified in mothers aged 50 and up. The highest frequency during this period was 6 per 100,000 deliveries. The prevalence for selected adverse outcomes in singleton pregnancies were: intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) 6%, preeclampsia 4%, preterm delivery 14%, gestational diabetes 8% and cesarean delivery 50%. In multiple pregnancies, the respective prevalence were: IUFD 2%, preeclampsia 22%, preterm delivery 57%, gestational diabetes 10% and cesarean delivery 79%. Pregnancy after assisted reproductive technologies was frequent (29% of singleton and 50% of multiple pregnancies).This study found high frequency of obstetric and neonatal complications at extremely advanced maternal age. Despite a high prevalence of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies in the studied Nordic countries, other complications were less frequent than those previously reported in different populations. Adequate preconception consultation concerning maternal and neonatal hazards is highly recommended in this group of women.
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9.
  • Langhoff-Roos, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • The Nordic medical birth registers - a potential goldmine for clinical research
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0412. ; 93:2, s. 132-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Nordic medical birth registers have long been used for valuable clinical research. Their collection of data for more than four decades offers unusual possibilities for research across generations. At the same time, serum and blotting paper blood samples have been stored from most neonates. Two large cohorts (approximately 100000 births) in Denmark and Norway have been described by questionnaires, interviews and collection of biological samples (blood, urine and milk teeth), as well as a systematic prospective follow-up of the offspring. National patient registers provide information on preceding, underlying and present health problems of the parents and their offspring. Researchers may, with permission from the national authorities, obtain access to individualized or anonymized data from the registers and tissue-banks. These data allow for multivariate analyses but their usefulness depends on knowledge of the specific registers and biological sample banks and on proper validation of the registers.
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10.
  • Momen, Natalie C., et al. (författare)
  • Maternal cancer and congenital anomalies in children ± a Danish nationwide cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 12:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies on pregnancy-Associated cancers have suggested an association with congenital anomalies in offspring. Previous studies have included maternal cancers diagnosed up to 2 years after pregnancy; however, long latency periods of some cancers mean that cancers diagnosed many years postpartum might have been present during pregnancy in a preclinical state. This paper considers the association between maternal cancers diagnosed from 2 years prior to pregnancy until the mother reaches 50 years of age, and congenital anomalies, as diagnosed at birth or within the first year of life. The current population-based study looks at associations of cancers in mothers with congenital anomalies in their children. Children were followed up from birth to diagnosis of a congenital anomaly, death, emigration or end of follow-up (whichever occurred first). A total of 56,016 children (2.6%) were considered exposed to a maternal cancer of any type; and they had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1.09) compared with unexposed children. The greatest HR was seen among children whose mothers had been diagnosed with cancers before or during pregnancy (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.75). Similar results were seen when paternal cancers were used as a negative control'. Statistically significant associations were seen for some specific congenital anomalies of organ systems (congenital anomalies of the musculoskeletal system [HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.25]) and for some specific types of maternal cancer (leukaemia [HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.61], The results of the main analyses suggest a small increase in risk of congenital anomalies in offspring of mothers diagnosed with cancer from 2 years before pregnancy, until the mother reaches 50 years of age; with the greatest increase seen for exposure in the pre-pregnancy and pregnancy period. These results may reflect shared causes for some cancers and some congenital anomalies. The similar results seen for paternal cancers indicate that the cause may be genetic or related to the families' social and environmental conditions.
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