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  • Holgersson, M. B., et al. (författare)
  • Lower prostate cancer risk in Swedish men with the androgen receptor E213 A-allele
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes & Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 28:3, s. 227-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a previous population-based study on 3369 European men with self-reported prostate cancer (PCa), it was shown that androgen receptor (AR) haplotype designated H2 was associated with high levels of serum PSA (prostate-specific antigen) concentration, and, at the same time, with low risk for PCa. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding in other cohorts, with registry-based cancer diagnosis. Using data from two population-based cohorts; the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, n = 12,121) and the Swedish Osteoporotic fractures in men study (MrOS, n = 1,120), 628 men with PCa and 1,374 controls were identified and genotyped. PCa data were collected from the Swedish national cancer registry. PCa odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for carriers of the particular AR haplotype, tagged by the rs6624304 T-allele. The 15% of men who were carriers of the AR haplotype H2 had approximately one-third lower risk for PCa diagnosis compared to those with the most common H1 variant (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45-0.94; p = 0.021). The same trend, although not statistically significant (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.47-1.24; p = 0.275), was observed in MrOS Sweden. When both cohorts were merged, an even more significant result was observed (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51-0.90; p = 0.008). Swedish men with the variant AR haplotype H2, tagged by rs6624304, have significantly lower risk of PCa compared to those with the more common variant.
  • Aschim, EL, et al. (författare)
  • Linkage between cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and GGN repeat length in the androgen receptor gene
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 89:10, s. 5105-5109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although sufficient androgen receptor (AR) function is crucial for normal male sexual differentiation, single-point mutations in the AR gene are infrequent in the two most common male congenital malformations, hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Because polymorphic CAG and GGN segments regulate AR function, we investigated whether there was any association between these polymorphisms and mentioned malformations. Genotyping was performed by direct sequencing of DNA from patients diagnosed with hypospadias (n = 51) and cryptorchidism ( n = 23) and controls ( n = 210). The subjects with hypospadias were divided into subgroups of glanular, penile, and penoscrotal hypospadias. Median GGN lengths were significantly higher ( 24 vs. 23) among both subjects with cryptorchidism, compared with controls ( P = 0.001), and those with penile hypospadias, compared with either controls ( P = 0.003) or glanular and penoscrotal hypospadias combined ( P = 0.018). The frequency of cases with GGN 24 or more vs. GGN = 23, differed significantly among those with cryptorchidism (65/35%), compared with controls (31/54%) ( P = 0.012), and among subjects with penile hypospadias (69/31%), compared with either controls ( P = 0.035) or glanular or penoscrotal hypospadias combined (32/55%) ( P = 0.056). There were no significant differences in CAG lengths between the cases and controls. Our findings indicate an association between GGN length and the risk of cryptorchidism and penile hypospadias, both conditions considered consequences of low androgenicity.
  • Brokken, Leon, et al. (författare)
  • Association between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene and disseminated testicular germ cell cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Endocrinology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-2392. ; 4:Feb.,14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the Western world, testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most common malignancy of young men. The malignant transformation of germ cells is thought to be caused by developmental and hormonal disturbances, probably related to environmental and lifestyle factors because of rapidly increasing incidence of TGCC in some countries. Additionally, there is a strong genetic component that affects susceptibility. However, genetic polymorphisms that have been identified so far only partially explain the risk of TGCC. Many of the persistent environmental pollutants act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). AHR signaling pathway is known to interfere with reproductive hormone signaling, which is supposed to play a role in the pathogenesis and invasive progression of TGCC. The aim of the present study was to identify whether AHR-related polymorphisms were associated with risk as well as histological and clinical features of TGCC in 367 patients and 537 controls. Haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in genes encoding AHR and AHR repressor (AHRR). Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of TGCC, non-seminoma versus seminoma, and metastasis versus localized disease. Four SNPs in AHRR demonstrated a significant allele association with risk to develop metastases (rs2466287: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.90; rs2672725: OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94; rs6879758: OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08-0.92; rs6896163: OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.98). This finding supports the hypothesis that compounds acting through AHR may play a role in the invasive progression of TGCC, either directly or through modification of reproductive hormone action.
  • Brokken, Leon, et al. (författare)
  • Association of polymorphisms in genes encoding hormone receptors ESR1, ESR2 and LHCGR with the risk and clinical features of testicular germ cell cancer.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 1872-8057. ; 351:2, s. 279-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most common malignancy in young men. Genetic variants known to be associated with risk of TGCC only partially account for the observed familial risks. We aimed to identify additional polymorphisms associated with risk as well as histological and clinical features of TGCC in 367 patients and 214 controls. Polymorphisms in ESR2 (rs1256063; OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79) and LHCGR (rs4597581; OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.89, and rs4953617; OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.21-2.94) associated with risk of TGCC. Polymorphisms in ESR1 (rs9397080; OR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.18-2.91) and LHCGR (rs7371084; OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.26-4.49) associated with risk of seminoma and metastasis, respectively. SNPs in ESR1 (rs9397080) and LHCGR (rs7371084) were predictors of higher LH levels and higher androgen sensitivity index in healthy subjects. The results suggest that polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2 and LHCGR contribute to the risk of developing TGCC, histological subtype, and risk to metastasis.
  • Dalgaard, Marlene D., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of men with symptoms of testicular dysgenesis syndrome and its network biology interpretation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 49:1, s. 58-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is a common disease that links testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of hypospadias and male infertility with impaired development of the testis. The incidence of these disorders has increased over the last few decades, and testicular cancer now affects 1% of the Danish and Norwegian male population. Methods To identify genetic variants that span the four TDS phenotypes, the authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 to screen 488 patients with symptoms of TDS and 439 selected controls with excellent reproductive health. Furthermore, they developed a novel integrative method that combines GWAS data with other TDS-relevant data types and identified additional TDS markers. The most significant findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 671 Nordic men. Results Markers located in the region of TGFBR3 and BMP7 showed association with all TDS phenotypes in both the discovery and replication cohorts. An immunohistochemistry investigation confirmed the presence of transforming growth factor beta receptor type III (TGFBR3) in peritubular and Leydig cells, in both fetal and adult testis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene showed significant associations, but only with testicular cancer. Conclusions The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGFBR3 and BMP7 genes, which belong to the transforming growth factor b signalling pathway, suggests a role for this pathway in the pathogenesis of TDS. Integrating data from multiple layers can highlight findings in GWAS that are biologically relevant despite having border significance at currently accepted statistical levels.
  • Eberhard, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Emotional disorders in testicular cancer survivors in relation to hypogonadism, androgen receptor polymorphism and treatment modality.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1573-2517. ; 122, s. 260-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: It has been documented that testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) patients may be at increased risk of developing emotional distress (EMD). Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether EMD is related to the presence of hypogonadism, androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism and/or treatment intensity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three to five years after treatment, testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured in 165 TGCC patients. These patients also completed a questionnaire concerning mental health. EMD was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The androgen receptor (AR) gene has two polymorphic regions in exon I; glutamine encoding CAG and glycine encoding GGN repeats. Association between emotional disorders and AR polymorphisms as well as type of treatment was assessed. RESULTS: Neither anxiety (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.40-2.4) nor depression (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.20-6.4) were overrepresented in biochemically hypogonadal TGCC patients and no association between AR polymorphisms and EMD was found. Patients treated with >/=5 cycles of cisplatinum based chemotherapy due to refractory or relapsed disease were more prone to experiencing symptoms of anxiety (p=0.006), but not depression (p=0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical hypogonadism and AR polymorphism do not seem to be risk factors for EMD in TGCC patients. Patients with refractory or relapsed disease receiving >/=5 cycles of cisplatinum based chemotherapy may, to a higher degree than patients receiving less intense therapy, suffer from anxiety.
  • Eberhard, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual Function in Men Treated for Testicular Cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1743-6109. ; 6, s. 1979-1989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Introduction. Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) patients may be at risk of developing sexual dysfunction after treatment. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in TGCC patients 3 to 5 years after treatment, and relate findings to biochemical hypogonadism, treatment intensity, and the expected prevalence in the Swedish male population. Methods. A questionnaire study on 129 consecutive TGCC patients 3 to 5 years post-treatment was performed. Comparators were an age-matched nationally representative group of men (N = 916) included in a study on sexual life in Sweden. Main Outcome Measures. Sexual functions (including erectile dysfunctional distress), time since last intercourse, sexual satisfaction, and experience of sexological treatment seeking were assessed using the same questions used in the epidemiological study on sexual life in Sweden. The findings in TGCC patients were correlated to biochemical signs of hypogonadism and type of oncological treatment: Surveillance, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, or standard doses of chemotherapy. Results. A higher proportion of TGCC patients than comparators were likely to report low sexual desire (odds ratio [OR] 6.7 [95% confidence interval {CI} 2.1-21]) as well as erectile dysfunction (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.4-10]). No significant differences were observed regarding erectile dysfunctional distress, change of desire over time, interest in sex, premature or delayed ejaculation, time since last intercourse, need for or receiving sexual advice, or sexual satisfaction. Hypogonadism did not predict erectile dysfunction (OR 1.1 [95% CI 0.26-4.5]) or low sexual desire (OR 1.2 [95% CI 0.11-14]). Treatment modality had no obvious impact on sexual function. Conclusion. Men treated for testicular cancer had higher risk of having low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction 3 to 5 years after completion of therapy than comparators. These sexual dysfunctions were not significantly associated with treatment intensity or hypogonadism. Eberhard J, Ståhl O, Cohn-Cedermark G, Cavallin-Ståhl E, Giwercman Y, Rylander L, Eberhard-Gran M, Kvist U, Fugl-Meyer KS, and Giwercman A. Sexual function in men treated for testicular cancer. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
  • Giwercman, Aleksander, et al. (författare)
  • Preserved male fertility despite decreased androgen sensitivity caused by a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X. ; 85:6, s. 2253-2259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the androgen receptor gene are considered as incompatible with preservation of fertility and have been suggested as a cause of male infertility. Two adult brothers, referred because of gynecomastia and hormonal levels in serum indicating androgen insensitivity (high sex hormone-binding globulin, and LH levels, despite extremely high testosterone concentration), turned out to be relatives to a third young man, referred independently of the two others and exhibiting identical clinical and hormonal stigmata. In all three men, we found a C→A substitution at position 2470 (exon 7) in the androgen receptor gene, leading to a Gln824Lys mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Exploring the family history revealed that their grandfathers, on their mothers' side, were brothers; and the Gln824Lys mutation was also found in the one of them who was still alive. Binding studies with the mutant receptor in transfected COS-7 cells, with mibolerone as ligand, exhibited equal Kd (0.7 vs. 1.0 nmol/ L), IC50 (0.8 vs. 1.1 nmol/L), and maximum binding (7.1 vs. 8.9 fmol/ 106 cells), as compared with the wild-type (WT) receptor. In a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase trans-activation assay, the activity of the mutant receptor was identical to that of the WT, when the synthetic androgen R1881 was used as a ligand; but with dihydrotestosterone, in concentrations up to 10 nmol/L, the activity of Gln824Lys mutated receptor was 10-62% of the WT variant. Thus, Gln824Lys mutation was found, both in vivo and in vitro, to cause slight impairment of receptor function but was compatible with preservation of male fertility. The patients inherited the mutation from their grandfathers through their mothers, and one of the young men possessing the mutation has fathered a daughter.
  • Isaksson, Sigrid, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibin B concentration is predictive for long-term azoospermia in men treated for testicular cancer.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Andrology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2047-2927. ; 2:2, s. 252-258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Azoospermia is a serious potential side effect following treatment for testicular cancer (TC). Our purpose was to examine possible predictors of long-term azoospermia in TC survivors. Ejaculates and blood samples were obtained from 217 patients at post-orchidectomy but before further treatment (T0 ) and/or at one or more of the time points 6, 12, 24, 36-60 months after treatment (T6 , T12 , T24 , T36-60 ). All patients delivered ejaculates at T36-60 , of which 117 also had confirmed presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate at T0 , enabling longitudinal analyses. Types of therapy, cryptorchidism and Inhibin B before and after treatment were evaluated in relation to risk of azoospermia at T36 . Inhibin B levels at T6 , T12 and T24 were predictors of azoospermia at T36 with cut-off levels at 49.7, 55.9 and 97.8 ng/L respectively (sensitivity 100%, specificity 57-78%). The frequency of azoospermia in all patients at T36-60 was 7.8% (95% CI 4.9-12%). As compared to surveillance patients, only those receiving >4 cycles of chemotherapy or ≥4 cycles of chemotherapy + radiotherapy (RT) had increased risk of long-term azoospermia (63% vs. 4.4% in the surveillance group; p = 0.0018). In conclusion, all patients with sperm production at post-orchidectomy but before further treatment and Inhibin B >56 ng/L 12 months after treatment had sperm production 3 years post-treatment. Eight per cent of TC survivors had azoospermia 3-5 years post-treatment, with highest risk in those receiving >4 cycles of chemotherapy or ≥4 cycles of chemotherapy in combination with RT.
  • Leandersson Bogefors, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Androgen receptor gene CAG and GGN repeat lengths as predictors of recovery of spermatogenesis following testicular germ cell cancer treatment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Asian Journal of Andrology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1008-682X .- 1745-7262. ; 19:5, s. 538-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spermatogenesis is an androgen-regulated process that depends on the action of androgen receptor (AR). Sperm production may be affected in men treated for testicular cancer (TC), and it is important to identify the factors influencing the timing of spermatogenesis recovery following cancer treatment. It is known that the CAG and GGN repeat numbers affect the activity of the AR; therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate if the CAG and GGN polymorphisms in the AR gene predict recovery of sperm production after TC treatment. TC patients (n = 130) delivered ejaculates at the following time points: postorchiectomy and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months posttherapy (T0, T6, T12, T24, T36, and T60). The CAG lengths were categorized into three groups, <22 CAG, 22-23 CAG, and >23 CAG, and the GGN tracts were also categorized into three groups, <23 GGN, 23 GGN, and >23 GGN. At T12, men with 22-23 CAG presented with a statistically significantly (P = 0.045) lower sperm concentration than those with other CAG numbers (8.4 × 10 6 ml-1 vs 16 × 10 6 ml-1 ; 95% CI: 1.01-2.65). This association was robust to omitting adjustment for treatment type and sperm concentration at T0 (P = 0.021; 3.7 × 10 6 ml-1 vs 10 × 10 6 ml-1 ; 95% CI: 1.13-4.90). The same trends were observed for total sperm number. The least active AR variant seems to be associated with a more rapid recovery of spermatogenesis. This finding adds to our understanding of the biology of postcancer therapy recovery of fertility in males and has clinical implications.
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