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  • Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt, et al. (författare)
  • In vivo quantification of glial activation in minipigs overexpressing human α-synuclein
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Synapse. - Wiley-Liss Inc.. - 0887-4476. ; 72:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a progressive loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons and the formation of Lewy bodies containing accumulated alpha-synuclein (α-syn). The pathology of Parkinson’s disease is associated with neuroinflammatory microglial activation, which may contribute to the ongoing neurodegeneration. This study investigates the in vivo microglial and dopaminergic response to overexpression of α-syn. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and the 18 kDa translocator protein radioligand, [11C](R)PK11195, to image brain microglial activation and (+)-α-[11C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([11C]DTBZ), to measure vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) availability in Göttingen minipigs following injection with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors expressing either mutant A53T α-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the SN (4 rAAV-α-syn, 4 rAAV-GFP, 5 non-injected control minipigs). We performed motor symptom assessment and immunohistochemical examination of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and transgene expression. Expression of GFP and α-syn was observed at the SN injection site and in the striatum. We observed no motor symptoms or changes in striatal [11C]DTBZ binding potential in vivo or striatal or SN TH staining in vitro between the groups. The mean [11C](R)PK11195 total volume of distribution was significantly higher in the basal ganglia and cortical areas of the α-syn group than the control animals. We conclude that mutant α-syn expression in the SN resulted in microglial activation in multiple sub- and cortical regions, while it did not affect TH stains or VMAT2 availability. Our data suggest that microglial activation constitutes an early response to accumulation of α-syn in the absence of dopamine neuron degeneration.
  • Lillethorup, Thea P., et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal monoaminergic PET imaging of chronic proteasome inhibition in minipigs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease. We used positron emission tomography to investigate longitudinal effects of chronic intracerebroventricular exposure to the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin on monoaminergic projections and neuroinflammation. Göttingen minipigs were implanted in the cisterna magna with a catheter connected to a subcutaneous injection port. Minipigs were imaged at baseline and after cumulative doses of 200 and 400 μg lactacystin, respectively. Main radioligands included [11C]-DTBZ (vesicular monoamine transporter type 2) and [11C]-yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor). [11C]-DASB (serotonin transporter) and [11C]-PK11195 (activated microglia) became available later in the study and we present their results in a smaller subset of animals for information purposes only. Striatal [11C]-DTBZ binding potentials decreased significantly by 16% after 200 μg compared to baseline, but the decrease was not sustained after 400 μg (n = 6). [11C]-yohimbine volume of distribution increased by 18–25% in the pons, grey matter and the thalamus after 200 μg, which persisted at 400 μg (n = 6). In the later subset of minipigs, we observed decreased [11C]-DASB (n = 5) and increased [11C]-PK11195 (n = 3) uptake after 200 μg. These changes may mimic monoaminergic changes and compensatory responses in early Parkinson’s disease.
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