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Sökning: WFRF:(Gobbin A.)

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1.
  • Meyer, H.F., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics studies on ASDEX Upgrade
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme, jointly run with the EUROfusion MST1 task force, continues to significantly enhance the physics base of ITER and DEMO. Here, the full tungsten wall is a key asset for extrapolating to future devices. The high overall heating power, flexible heating mix and comprehensive diagnostic set allows studies ranging from mimicking the scrape-off-layer and divertor conditions of ITER and DEMO at high density to fully non-inductive operation (q 95 = 5.5, ) at low density. Higher installed electron cyclotron resonance heating power 6 MW, new diagnostics and improved analysis techniques have further enhanced the capabilities of AUG. Stable high-density H-modes with MW m-1 with fully detached strike-points have been demonstrated. The ballooning instability close to the separatrix has been identified as a potential cause leading to the H-mode density limit and is also found to play an important role for the access to small edge-localized modes (ELMs). Density limit disruptions have been successfully avoided using a path-oriented approach to disruption handling and progress has been made in understanding the dissipation and avoidance of runaway electron beams. ELM suppression with resonant magnetic perturbations is now routinely achieved reaching transiently . This gives new insight into the field penetration physics, in particular with respect to plasma flows. Modelling agrees well with plasma response measurements and a helically localised ballooning structure observed prior to the ELM is evidence for the changed edge stability due to the magnetic perturbations. The impact of 3D perturbations on heat load patterns and fast-ion losses have been further elaborated. Progress has also been made in understanding the ELM cycle itself. Here, new fast measurements of and E r allow for inter ELM transport analysis confirming that E r is dominated by the diamagnetic term even for fast timescales. New analysis techniques allow detailed comparison of the ELM crash and are in good agreement with nonlinear MHD modelling. The observation of accelerated ions during the ELM crash can be seen as evidence for the reconnection during the ELM. As type-I ELMs (even mitigated) are likely not a viable operational regime in DEMO studies of 'natural' no ELM regimes have been extended. Stable I-modes up to have been characterised using -feedback. Core physics has been advanced by more detailed characterisation of the turbulence with new measurements such as the eddy tilt angle - measured for the first time - or the cross-phase angle of and fluctuations. These new data put strong constraints on gyro-kinetic turbulence modelling. In addition, carefully executed studies in different main species (H, D and He) and with different heating mixes highlight the importance of the collisional energy exchange for interpreting energy confinement. A new regime with a hollow profile now gives access to regimes mimicking aspects of burning plasma conditions and lead to nonlinear interactions of energetic particle modes despite the sub-Alfvénic beam energy. This will help to validate the fast-ion codes for predicting ITER and DEMO.
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2.
  • Meyer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter range, is instrumental to progress in the field, as ITER and DEMO core/pedestal and SOL parameters are not achievable simultaneously in present day devices. A two prong approach is adopted. On the one hand, scenarios with tolerable transient heat and particle loads, including active edge localised mode (ELM) control are developed. On the other hand, divertor solutions including advanced magnetic configurations are studied. Considerable progress has been made on both approaches, in particular in the fields of: ELM control with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP), small ELM regimes, detachment onset and control, as well as filamentary scrape-off-layer transport. For example full ELM suppression has now been achieved on AUG at low collisionality with n = 2 RMP maintaining good confinement H-H(98,H-y2) approximate to 0.95. Advances have been made with respect to detachment onset and control. Studies in advanced divertor configurations (Snowflake, Super-X and X-point target divertor) shed new light on SOL physics. Cross field filamentary transport has been characterised in a wide parameter regime on AUG, MAST and TCV progressing the theoretical and experimental understanding crucial for predicting first wall loads in ITER and DEMO. Conditions in the SOL also play a crucial role for ELM stability and access to small ELM regimes.
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3.
  • Labit, B., et al. (författare)
  • Dependence on plasma shape and plasma fueling for small edge-localized mode regimes in TCV and ASDEX Upgrade
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved. Within the EUROfusion MST1 work package, a series of experiments has been conducted on AUG and TCV devices to disentangle the role of plasma fueling and plasma shape for the onset of small ELM regimes. On both devices, small ELM regimes with high confinement are achieved if and only if two conditions are fulfilled at the same time. Firstly, the plasma density at the separatrix must be large enough (ne,sep/nG ∼ 0.3), leading to a pressure profile flattening at the separatrix, which stabilizes type-I ELMs. Secondly, the magnetic configuration has to be close to a double null (DN), leading to a reduction of the magnetic shear in the extreme vicinity of the separatrix. As a consequence, its stabilizing effect on ballooning modes is weakened.
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4.
  • Coda, S., et al. (författare)
  • Physics research on the TCV tokamak facility: From conventional to alternative scenarios and beyond
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The research program of the TCV tokamak ranges from conventional to advanced-tokamak scenarios and alternative divertor configurations, to exploratory plasmas driven by theoretical insight, exploiting the device's unique shaping capabilities. Disruption avoidance by real-time locked mode prevention or unlocking with electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was thoroughly documented, using magnetic and radiation triggers. Runaway generation with high-Z noble-gas injection and runaway dissipation by subsequent Ne or Ar injection were studied for model validation. The new 1 MW neutral beam injector has expanded the parameter range, now encompassing ELMy H-modes in an ITER-like shape and nearly non-inductive H-mode discharges sustained by electron cyclotron and neutral beam current drive. In the H-mode, the pedestal pressure increases modestly with nitrogen seeding while fueling moves the density pedestal outwards, but the plasma stored energy is largely uncorrelated to either seeding or fueling. High fueling at high triangularity is key to accessing the attractive small edge-localized mode (type-II) regime. Turbulence is reduced in the core at negative triangularity, consistent with increased confinement and in accord with global gyrokinetic simulations. The geodesic acoustic mode, possibly coupled with avalanche events, has been linked with particle flow to the wall in diverted plasmas. Detachment, scrape-off layer transport, and turbulence were studied in L- and H-modes in both standard and alternative configurations (snowflake, super-X, and beyond). The detachment process is caused by power 'starvation' reducing the ionization source, with volume recombination playing only a minor role. Partial detachment in the H-mode is obtained with impurity seeding and has shown little dependence on flux expansion in standard single-null geometry. In the attached L-mode phase, increasing the outer connection length reduces the in-out heat-flow asymmetry. A doublet plasma, featuring an internal X-point, was achieved successfully, and a transport barrier was observed in the mantle just outside the internal separatrix. In the near future variable-configuration baffles and possibly divertor pumping will be introduced to investigate the effect of divertor closure on exhaust and performance, and 3.5 MW ECRH and 1 MW neutral beam injection heating will be added.
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5.
  • Martin, P., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science programme
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 53:10, s. 104018-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reports the highlights of the RFX-mod fusion science programme since the last 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The RFX-mod fusion science programme focused on two main goals: exploring the fusion potential of the reversed field pinch (RFP) magnetic configuration and contributing to the solution of key science and technology problems in the roadmap to ITER. Active control of several plasma parameters has been a key tool in this endeavour. New upgrades on the system for active control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability are underway and will be presented in this paper. Unique among the existing fusion devices, RFX-mod has been operated both as an RFP and as a tokamak. The latter operation has allowed the exploration of edge safety factor q edge < 2 with active control of MHD stability and studies concerning basic energy and flow transport mechanisms. Strong interaction has continued with the stellarator community in particular on the physics of helical states and on three-dimensional codes.
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6.
  • Coda, S., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the TCV tokamak program : Scientific progress and facility upgrades
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : Institute of Physics Publishing. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The TCV tokamak is augmenting its unique historical capabilities (strong shaping, strong electron heating) with ion heating, additional electron heating compatible with high densities, and variable divertor geometry, in a multifaceted upgrade program designed to broaden its operational range without sacrificing its fundamental flexibility. The TCV program is rooted in a three-pronged approach aimed at ITER support, explorations towards DEMO, and fundamental research. A 1 MW, tangential neutral beam injector (NBI) was recently installed and promptly extended the TCV parameter range, with record ion temperatures and toroidal rotation velocities and measurable neutral-beam current drive. ITER-relevant scenario development has received particular attention, with strategies aimed at maximizing performance through optimized discharge trajectories to avoid MHD instabilities, such as peeling-ballooning and neoclassical tearing modes. Experiments on exhaust physics have focused particularly on detachment, a necessary step to a DEMO reactor, in a comprehensive set of conventional and advanced divertor concepts. The specific theoretical prediction of an enhanced radiation region between the two X-points in the low-field-side snowflake-minus configuration was experimentally confirmed. Fundamental investigations of the power decay length in the scrape-off layer (SOL) are progressing rapidly, again in widely varying configurations and in both D and He plasmas; in particular, the double decay length in L-mode limited plasmas was found to be replaced by a single length at high SOL resistivity. Experiments on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection and electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) have begun in earnest, in parallel with studies of runaway electron generation and control, in both stable and disruptive conditions; a quiescent runaway beam carrying the entire electrical current appears to develop in some cases. Developments in plasma control have benefited from progress in individual controller design and have evolved steadily towards controller integration, mostly within an environment supervised by a tokamak profile control simulator. TCV has demonstrated effective wall conditioning with ECRH in He in support of the preparations for JT-60SA operation.
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7.
  • Marco, Aitor, et al. (författare)
  • A Variable Structure Control Scheme Proposal for the Tokamak a Configuration Variable
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Complexity. - : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 1076-2787 .- 1099-0526.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fusion power is the most significant prospects in the long-term future of energy in the sense that it composes a potentially clean, cheap, and unlimited power source that would substitute the widespread traditional nonrenewable energies, reducing the geographical dependence on their sources as well as avoiding collateral environmental impacts. Although the nuclear fusion research started in the earlier part of 20th century and the fusion reactors have been developed since the 1950s, the fusion reaction processes achieved have not yet obtained net power, since the generated plasma requires more energy to achieve and remain in necessary particular pressure and temperature conditions than the produced profitable energy. For this purpose, the plasma has to be confined inside a vacuum vessel, as it is the case of the Tokamak reactor, which consists of a device that generates magnetic fields within a toroidal chamber, being one of the most promising solutions nowadays. However, the Tokamak reactors still have several issues such as the presence of plasma instabilities that provokes a decay of the fusion reaction and, consequently, a reduction in the pulse duration. In this sense, since long pulse reactions are the key to produce net power, the use of robust and fast controllers arises as a useful tool to deal with the unpredictability and the small time constant of the plasma behavior. In this context, this article focuses on the application of robust control laws to improve the controllability of the plasma current, a crucial parameter during the plasma heating and confinement processes. In particular, a variable structure control scheme based on sliding surfaces, namely, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is presented and applied to the plasma current control problem. In order to test the validity and goodness of the proposed controller, its behavior is compared to that of the traditional PID schemes applied in these systems, using the RZIp model for the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) reactor. The obtained results are very promising, leading to consider this controller as a strong candidate to enhance the performance of the PID-based controllers usually employed in this kind of systems.
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8.
  • Martin, P., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the RFX fusion science program
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 51:9, s. 094023-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper summarizes the main achievements of the RFX fusion science program in the period between the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conferences. RFX-mod is the largest reversed field pinch in the world, equipped with a system of 192 coils for active control of MHD stability. The discovery and understanding of helical states with electron internal transport barriers and core electron temperature >1.5 keV significantly advances the perspectives of the configuration. Optimized experiments with plasma current up to 1.8 MA have been realized, confirming positive scaling. The first evidence of edge transport barriers is presented. Progress has been made also in the control of first-wall properties and of density profiles, with initial first-wall lithization experiments. Micro-turbulence mechanisms such as ion temperature gradient and micro-tearing are discussed in the framework of understanding gradient-driven transport in low magnetic chaos helical regimes. Both tearing mode and resistive wall mode active control have been optimized and experimental data have been used to benchmark numerical codes. The RFX programme also provides important results for the fusion community and in particular for tokamaks and stellarators on feedback control of MHD stability and on three-dimensional physics. On the latter topic, the result of the application of stellarator codes to describe three-dimensional reversed field pinch physics will be presented.
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9.
  • Zuin, M., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science activity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reports the main recent results of the RFX-mod fusion science activity. The RFX-mod device is characterized by a unique flexibility in terms of accessible magnetic configurations. Axisymmetric and helically shaped reversed-field pinch equilibria have been studied, along with tokamak plasmas in a wide range of q(a) regimes (spanning from 4 down to 1.2 values). The full range of magnetic configurations in between the two, the so-called ultra-low q ones, has been explored, with the aim of studying specific physical issues common to all equilibria, such as, for example, the density limit phenomenon. The powerful RFX-mod feedback control system has been exploited for MHD control, which allowed us to extend the range of experimental parameters, as well as to induce specific magnetic perturbations for the study of 3D effects. In particular, transport, edge and isotope effects in 3D equilibria have been investigated, along with runaway mitigations through induced magnetic perturbations. The first transitions to an improved confinement scenario in circular and D-shaped tokamak plasmas have been obtained thanks to an active modification of the edge electric field through a polarized electrode. The experiments are supported by intense modeling with 3D MHD, gyrokinetic, guiding center and transport codes. Proposed modifications to the RFX-mod device, which will enable further contributions to the solution of key issues in the roadmap to ITER and DEMO, are also briefly presented.
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10.
  • Lorenzini, R., et al. (författare)
  • Self-organized helical equilibria as a new paradigm for ohmically heated fusion plasmas
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Physics. - 1745-2473 .- 1745-2481. ; 5:8, s. 570-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the quest for new energy sources, the research on controlled thermonuclear fusion has been boosted by the start of the construction phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). ITER is based on the tokamak magnetic configuration, which is the best performing one in terms of energy confinement. Alternative concepts are however actively researched, which in the long term could be considered for a second generation of reactors. Here, we show results concerning one of these configurations, the reversed-field pinch (RFP). By increasing the plasma current, a spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium occurs, with a change of magnetic topology. Partially conserved magnetic flux surfaces emerge within residual magnetic chaos, resulting in the onset of a transport barrier. This is a structural change and sheds new light on the potential of the RFP as the basis for a low-magnetic-field ohmic fusion reactor.
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