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Sökning: WFRF:(Gonzalez CA)

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  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
  • Clark, David W, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1, s. 4957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.
2.
  • Abarca-Gómez, Leandra, et al. (författare)
  • Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 390:10113, s. 2627-2642
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP&gt;0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP&gt;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP&gt;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.
3.
  • Prusti, T., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia mission
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page.
4.
5.
  • Amundadottir, Laufey, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 41, s. 986-990
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of pancreatic cancer, a cancer with one of the lowest survival rates worldwide. We genotyped 558,542 SNPs in 1,896 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 1,939 controls drawn from 12 prospective cohorts plus one hospital-based case-control study. We conducted a combined analysis of these groups plus an additional 2,457 affected individuals and 2,654 controls from eight case-control studies, adjusting for study, sex, ancestry and five principal components. We identified an association between a locus on 9q34 and pancreatic cancer marked by the SNP rs505922 (combined P = 5.37 x 10(-8); multiplicative per-allele odds ratio 1.20; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.28). This SNP maps to the first intron of the ABO blood group gene. Our results are consistent with earlier epidemiologic evidence suggesting that people with blood group O may have a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than those with groups A or B.
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6.
  • Bingham, Sheila A, et al. (författare)
  • Is the association with fiber from foods in colorectal cancer confounded by folate intake?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 14:6, s. 1552-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of multivariate adjustment including folate on the strong protective effect of fiber in foods on colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition was investigated in 1,721 cases identified in the latest follow-up. The inclusion of an additional 656 cases confirmed our previously published results, with a strong and significant reduction in colorectal cancer risk of similar to 9% for each uncalibrated quintile increase in fiber (P-linear trend < 0.001) compared with an 8% reduction in our previous report, which had not been adjusted for folate. Inclusion of the other covariates (physical activity, alcohol, smoking, and red and processed meat) confirmed this significant inverse association for colon cancer and strengthened the association with left-sided colon cancer (P < 0.001). After maximum adjustment, the association between fiber and rectal cancer was not significant, as in our previous analysis. The association with fiber from different food sources was analyzed, but again, there were no significance trends after maximum adjustment.
7.
  • Duell, Eric J, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 94:5, s. 1266-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The association between alcohol consumption and GC has been investigated in numerous epidemiologic studies with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and GC risk. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 444 cases of first primary gastric adenocarcinoma. HRs and 95% CIs for GC were estimated by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression for consumption of pure ethanol in grams per day, with stratification by smoking status, anatomic subsite (cardia, noncardia), and histologic subtype (diffuse, intestinal). In a subset of participants, results were further adjusted for baseline Helicobacter pylori serostatus. RESULTS: Heavy (compared with very light) alcohol consumption (≥60 compared with 0.1-4.9 g/d) at baseline was positively associated with GC risk (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.58), whereas lower consumption amounts (&lt;60 g/d) were not. When we analyzed GC risk by type of alcoholic beverage, there was a positive association for beer (≥30 g/d; HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.73) but not for wine or liquor. Associations were primarily observed at the highest amounts of drinking in men and limited to noncardia subsite and intestinal histology; no statistically significant linear dose-response trends with GC risk were observed. CONCLUSION: Heavy (but not light or moderate) consumption of alcohol at baseline (mainly from beer) is associated with intestinal-type noncardia GC risk in men from the EPIC cohort.
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8.
  • Durães, C., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in the IL1A gene region contribute to intestinal-type gastric carcinoma susceptibility in European populations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Liss Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 135:6, s. 1343-1355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The most studied genetic susceptibility factors involved in gastric carcinoma (GC) risk are polymorphisms in the inflammation-linked genes interleukin 1 (IL1) B and IL1RN. Despite the evidence pointing to the IL1 region, definite functional variants reproducible across populations of different genetic background have not been discovered so far. A high density linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of the IL1 gene cluster was established using HapMap to identify haplotype tagSNPs. Eighty-seven SNPs were genotyped in a Portuguese case-control study (358 cases, 1,485 controls) for the discovery analysis. A replication study, including a subset of those tagSNPs (43), was performed in an independent analysis (EPIC-EurGast) containing individuals from 10 European countries (365 cases, 1284 controls). Single SNP and haplotype block associations were determined for GC overall and anatomopathological subtypes. The most robust association was observed for SNP rs17042407, 16Kb upstream of the IL1A gene. Although several other SNP associations were observed, only the inverse association of rs17042407 allele C with GC of the intestinal type was observed in both studies, retaining significance after multiple testing correction (p=0.0042) in the combined analysis. The haplotype analysis of the IL1A LD block in the combined dataset revealed the association between a common haplotype carrying the rs17042407 variant and GC, particularly of the intestinal type (p=3.1 × 10-5) and non cardia localisation (p=4.6 × 10-3). These results confirm the association of IL1 gene variants with GC and reveal a novel SNP and haplotypes in the IL1A region associated with intestinal type GC in European populations. What's new? Genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer lurks in the region of the interleukin 1 gene cluster, but no one yet knows just how genetic variation contributes to risk. These authors searched for other variants within this genetic neighborhood by assessing linkage disequilibrium. There they found several small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), mainly in the IL1A gene region, that associated with gastric carcinoma, particularly the intestinal subtype. By identifying these SNPs, they hope to shed more light on how the disease develops or help identify people who are at risk. © 2014 UICC.
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10.
  • Kreimer, Aimée R, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of human papillomavirus antibodies and risk of subsequent head and neck cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X. ; 31:21, s. 2708-2715
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera.METHODS: We identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression.RESULTS: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative.CONCLUSION: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers.
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