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Sökning: WFRF:(Grace Delia)

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1.
  • Ahlberg, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • A Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Exposure in Low and Mid-Income Dairy Consumers in Kenya
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Toxins. - : MDPI. - 2072-6651 .- 2072-6651. ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aflatoxin M-1 (AFM(1)), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk of cancer and stunting as a result of AFM(1) consumption in Nairobi, Kenya, using worst case assumptions of toxicity and data from previous studies. Almost all (99.5%) milk was contaminated with AFM(1). Cancer risk caused by AFM(1) was lower among consumers purchasing from formal markets (0.003 cases per 100,000) than for low-income consumers (0.006 cases per 100,000) purchasing from informal markets. Overall cancer risk (0.004 cases per 100,000) from AFM(1) alone was low. Stunting is multifactorial, but assuming only AFM(1) consumption was the determinant, consumption of milk contaminated with AFM(1) levels found in this study could contribute to 2.1% of children below three years in middle-income families, and 2.4% in low-income families, being stunted. Overall, 2.7% of children could hypothetically be stunted due to AFM(1) exposure from milk. Based on our results AFM(1) levels found in milk could contribute to an average of -0.340 height for age z-score reduction in growth. The exposure to AFM(1) from milk is 46 ng/day on average, but children bear higher exposure of 3.5 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day compared to adults, at 0.8 ng/kg bw/day. Our paper shows that concern over aflatoxins in milk in Nairobi is disproportionate if only risk of cancer is considered, but that the effect on stunting children might be much more significant from a public health perspective; however, there is still insufficient data on the health effects of AFM(1).
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2.
  • Alonso, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of tuberculosis, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis in cattle in Tanzania : a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Animal Health Research Reviews. - 1466-2523 .- 1475-2654. ; 17:1, s. 16-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0.82-33.3%). Overall meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were 8.2% (95% CI 6.5-10.2), 1.28% (95% CI 0.35-4.58) and 10.3% (95% CI 6.20-16.70) respectively, for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. Time and region were predictors of variability of Brucella spp. prevalence, while diagnostic test was a strong predictor of Mycobacterium spp. prevalence, with higher prevalence estimates given by skin tests compared with post-mortem inspection. None of the studied factors were associated with prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. The small sample sizes, range of study locations, study designs and diagnostics used, contributed to high variability among prevalence estimates. Larger and more robust prevalence studies are needed to adequately support risk assessment and management of animal and public health threats.
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3.
  • Alonso, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • Where literature is scarce : observations and lessons learnt from four systematic reviews of zoonoses in African countries.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Animal Health Research Reviews. - : Cambridge University Press (CUP): STM Journals. - 1466-2523 .- 1475-2654. ; 17:1, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The success of a systematic review depends on the availability, accessibility and quality of literature related to the review question. This paper presents the literature found in four systematic reviews conducted for a selection of zoonotic hazards in four livestock value chains in Africa, as well as setting out the challenges in conducting the reviews. The protocol was designed following international standards, and addressed four questions around prevalence, risk factors, control options and impact of various hazards and populations. Searches were conducted in four online databases. Articles were screened for relevance, and quality was assessed before data extraction. Literature on zoonotic hazards was in general scarce and access to full articles was limited. Overall, 25-40% of papers were considered poor quality. The diversity of approaches and designs in the studies compromised the ability to generate summarized estimates. We found that the emphasis of veterinary research has been on livestock problems rather than public health issues, although this seems to be shifting in the last decade; we also found there are limited studies on impact and control. While increasing literature is being published around zoonoses in Africa, this is still inadequate to appropriately inform policy and guide research efforts.
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4.
  • Anyango, Gladys, et al. (författare)
  • A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw milk produced in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu County, Kenya
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACTBackground: Food safety is of increasing global concern, and a OneHealth issue requiring attention of many disciplines. Aflatoxins are toxins produced by fungi and found in foods and feeds, and exposure causes negative health effects in humans and animals. When lactating animals consume aflatoxin B1, the metabolite (AFM1) is transferred to milk.Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to determine characteristics of smallholder dairy farming in urban and peri-urban areas of Kisumu and quantify AFM1 in milk. Data was collected from 97 randomly selected dairy farms on farming practices, milk production, and awareness about aflatoxins. Collected milk samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AFM1.Results: Average milk produced was 13 liters per day per household and mainly used for household consumption and sold to neighbours. Farmers mainly fed cows on forage and concentrates (62.9%). Levels of AFM1 ranged from below the detection limit to 151 ppt, with a mean of 29.67 p...
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5.
  • Anyango, Gladys, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Training and Use of Novasil Binder in Mitigating Aflatoxins in Cow Milk Produced in Smallholder Farms in Urban and Periurban Areas of Kenya
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Toxins. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6651 .- 2072-6651. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aflatoxins, which commonly contaminate animal feeds and human food, present a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. After ingestion by cows, aflatoxin B1 is metabolized to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), some of which is excreted in milk. This study involved smallholder dairy farms in urban and periurban areas of Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of training and providing farmers with aflatoxin binder (NovaSil(R)) on AFM1 contamination in raw milk. A baseline survey was undertaken and 30 farmers whose milk had AFM1 levels above 20 ppt were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. Of these, 20 farmers were part of the intervention, and were given training on the usage of the NovaSil(R) binder, while 10 served as a control group. All farmers were visited biweekly for three months for interviews and milk samples were collected to measure the AFM1 levels. The AFM1 levels were quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The NovaSil(R) binder significantly reduced AFM1 concentrations in the raw milk produced by the farmers in the intervention group over the duration of the study (p < 0.01). The control farms were more likely to have milk with AFM1 levels exceeding the regulatory limit of 50 ppt compared to the intervention farms (p < 0.001) (odds ratio = 6.5). The farmers in the intervention group perceived that there was an improvement in milk yield, and in cow health and appetite. These farmers also felt that the milk they sold, as well as the one they used at home, was safer. In conclusion, the use of binders by dairy farmers can be effective in reducing AFM1 in milk. Further research is needed to understand their effectiveness, especially when used in smallholder settings.
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6.
  • Bett, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change and Infectious Livestock Diseases : The Case of Rift Valley Fever and Tick-Borne Diseases
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Climate-Smart Agriculture Papers. - Cham : Springer. - 9783319927978 - 9783319927985 ; , s. 29-37
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change influences the occurrence and transmission of a wide range of livestock diseases through multiple pathways. Diseases caused by pathogens that spent part of their life cycle outside the host (e.g. in vectors or the environment) are more sensitive in this regard, compared to those caused by obligate pathogens. In this chapter, we use two well-studied vector-borne diseases—Rift Valley fever (RVF) and tick-borne diseases (TBDs)—as case studies to describe direct pathways through which climate change influences infectious disease-risk in East and southern Africa. The first case study demonstrates that changes in the distribution and frequency of above-normal precipitation increases the frequency of RVF epidemics. The second case study suggests that an increase in temperature would cause shifts in the spatial distribution of TBDs, with cooler and wetter areas expected to experience heightened risk with climate change. These diseases already cause severe losses in agricultural productivity, food security and socio-economic development wherever they occur, and an increase in their incidence or geographical coverage would intensify these losses. We further illustrate some of the control measures that can be used to manage these diseases and recommend that more research should be done to better understand the impacts of climate change on livestock diseases as well as on the effectiveness of the available intervention measures.
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7.
  • Bett, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of flood irrigation on the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens in an arid and semi-arid area in the eastern Kenya
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. Results demonstrate a drastic decline in vegetation cover over R approximate to 25 years particularly in the irrigated areas where cropland increased by about 1,400% and non-farm land (under closed trees, open to closed herbaceous vegetation, bushlands and open trees) reduced by 30-100%. The irrigated areas had high densities of Aedes mcintoshi, Culexspp. and Mansonia spp. (important vectors for multiple arboviruses) during the wet and dry season while pastoral areas had high densities of Ae. tricholabis specifically in the wet season. The seroprevalences of RVFV, WNV and DFV were higher in the irrigated compared to the pastoral areas while those for Leptospira spp and Brucella spp. were higher in the pastoral compared to the irrigated areas. It is likely that people in the pastoral areas get exposed to Leptospira spp by using water fetched from reservoirs that are shared with livestock and wildlife, and to Brucella spp. by consuming raw or partially cooked animal source foods such as milk and meat. This study suggests that irrigation increases the risk of mosquito-borne infections while at the same time providing a protective effect against zoonotic pathogens that thrive in areas with high livestock population densities.
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8.
  • Bett, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • Spatiotemporal analysis of historical records (2001-2012) on dengue fever in Vietnam and development of a statistical model for forecasting risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 14:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is the most widespread infectious disease of humans transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children in the Southeast Asia and western Pacific regions. We analyzed surveillance records from health centers in Vietnam collected between 2001-2012 to determine seasonal trends, develop risk maps and an incidence forecasting model.METHODS: The data were analyzed using a hierarchical spatial Bayesian model that approximates its posterior parameter distributions using the integrated Laplace approximation algorithm (INLA). Meteorological, altitude and land cover (LC) data were used as predictors. The data were grouped by province (n = 63) and month (n = 144) and divided into training (2001-2009) and validation (2010-2012) sets. Thirteen meteorological variables, 7 land cover data and altitude were considered as predictors. Only significant predictors were kept in the final multivariable model. Eleven dummy variables representing month were also fitted to account for seasonal effects. Spatial and temporal effects were accounted for using Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) and autoregressive (1) models. Their levels of significance were analyzed using deviance information criterion (DIC). The model was validated based on the Theil's coefficient which compared predicted and observed incidence estimated using the validation data. Dengue incidence predictions for 2010-2012 were also used to generate risk maps.RESULTS: The mean monthly dengue incidence during the period was 6.94 cases (SD 14.49) per 100,000 people. Analyses on the temporal trends of the disease showed regular seasonal epidemics that were interrupted every 3 years (specifically in July 2004, July 2007 and September 2010) by major fluctuations in incidence. Monthly mean minimum temperature, rainfall, area under urban settlement/build-up areas and altitude were significant in the final model. Minimum temperature and rainfall had non-linear effects and lagging them by two months provided a better fitting model compared to using unlagged variables. Forecasts for the validation period closely mirrored the observed data and accurately captured the troughs and peaks of dengue incidence trajectories. A favorable Theil's coefficient of inequality of 0.22 was generated.CONCLUSIONS: The study identified temperature, rainfall, altitude and area under urban settlement as being significant predictors of dengue incidence. The statistical model fitted the data well based on Theil's coefficient of inequality, and risk maps generated from its predictions identified most of the high-risk provinces throughout the country.
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9.
  • Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh, et al. (författare)
  • Community, system and policy level drivers of bovine tuberculosis in smallholder periurban dairy farms in India : a qualitative enquiry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRapid urbanization has led to expansion of peri-urban fringes, where intensive, industry-style livestock rearing has led to emerging vulnerabilities at the human-animal-environment interface. This study was undertaken to understand the health system and farm-level factors that influenced the risk of transmission of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in animals and humans in peri-urban smallholder dairy farms of India.MethodsThematic guides were developing through literature review and expert consultation. In-depth interviews were conducted till attainment of saturation. Identification of core themes was followed by etiological enquiry and generation of a conceptual model.ResultsVeterinarians were consulted as a last resort after home-remedies and quacks had failed. Damage control measures, especially with respect to- selling or abandoning sick animals, added to the risk of disease transmission. Although civic authorities believed in the adequacy of a functioning laboratory network, end users were aggrieved at the lack of services. Despite the presence of extension services, knowledge and awareness was limited, promoting risky behaviour. The absence of cogent policies in dealing with bTB was a significant barrier. Stakeholders did not consider bTB to be a major concern. It is possible that they underestimate the problem.ConclusionThe current study helps to identify gaps which need to be addressed through collaborative research, and OneHealth interventions to build community awareness.
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10.
  • Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh, et al. (författare)
  • The social biography of antibiotic use in smallholder dairy farms in India
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 2047-2994 .- 2047-2994. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the major threats to global health, food security and development today. While there has been considerable attention about the use and misuse of antibiotics amongst human populations in both research and policy environments, there is no definitive estimate of the extent of misuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector and its contribution to AMR in humans. In this study, we explored the drivers of irrational usage of verterinary antibiotics in the dairy farming sector in peri-urban India.Methods and materials: The study was conducted in the peri-urban belts of Ludhiana, Guwahati and Bangalore. A total of 54 interviews (formal and non-formal) were carried out across these three sites. Theme guides were developed to explore different drivers of veterinary antimicrobial use. Data was audio recorded and transcribed. Analysis of the coded data set was carried out using AtlasTi. Version 7. Themes emerged inductively from the set of codes.Results: Findings were presented based on concept of 'levels of analyses'. Emergent themes were categorised as individual, health systems, and policy level drivers. Low level of knowledge related to antibiotics among farmers, active informal service providers, direct marketing of drugs to the farmers and easily available antibiotics, dispensed without appropriate prescriptions contributed to easy access to antibiotics, and were identified to be the possible drivers contributing to the non-prescribed and self-administered use of antibiotics in the dairy farms.Conclusions: Smallholding dairy farmers operated within very small margins of profits. The paucity of formal veterinary services at the community level, coupled with easy availability of antibiotics and the need to ensure profits and minimise losses, promoted non-prescribed antibiotic consumption. It is essential that these local drivers of irrational antibiotic use are understood in order to develop interventions and policies that seek to reduce antibiotic misuse.
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