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  • Granqvist, Claes-Göran, 1946-, et al. (författare)
  • Thermochromic Fenestration Based on VO2: : Finally a Technology of Practical Interest?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Society Of Vacuum Coaters 59th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, 2016. - Delft : TU Delft. ; , s. 62-69
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vanadium-dioxide-based thermochromic thin films and nanoparticle composites can have significant transmittance for visible light, Tlum, while they are able to transmit more near-infrared solar radiation at τ < τc than at τ > τc, where τ denotes temperature and τc ≈ 68 °C. It has been realized for many years that these properties are of principle interest for energy efficient fenestration, but the technology has been slow to mature. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art and points at the many advances that have been made during recent years. Specifically, we discuss how to use doping to adjust τc to room temperature and to increase Tlum, how to use nanomaterials to enhance the solar energy transmittance modulation and Tlum, and how to prepare nanoparticle composites by sputtering. We also discuss thermochromic light scattering, which is a recently discovered phenomenon.
  • Karlsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • "Transparent intelligence" for sustainable development
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Abstracts. ; , s. 208-
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transparent materials are essential in everyone’s life. They enable daylight to reach the interior of buildings, thereby contributing to both our physical and mental well-being; they are the primary component for communication via optical fibers and a key component in electronic devices such as protective cover and/or dielectric material; and they enable clean energy production through solar panels or algae reactors by acting as protective and light transmitting barriers. Adding functions to transparent materials in an intelligent way creates further opportunities to use and enhance the beneficial impacts of transparency. The concept Transparent Intelligence covers transparent materials and products with integral intelligent functions – passive, active or interactive. By using Transparent Intelligence it is possible to embrace many of the societal challenges that we are facing today. The concept can be divided into five broad industrial sectors: Built Environment, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Solar Energy, Mobility, and Materials. A perspective on how Transparent Intelligence can improve the sustainable development of our world will be presented, using examples of electrochromic windows for energy-efficient buildings, photocatalytic coatings for improved indoor air quality, transparent conductive coatings for antennas, bandpass filters for mobile phone indoor coverage, UV down-converting components for efficient solar energy, hygienic surfaces for infection mitigation on electronic devices, printed electronics for sustainable glass packaging, and IR-reflecting coatings for fire safety.
  • Lansåker, Pia C., et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of gold nanoparticle films : Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with image analysis, and atomic force microscopy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: AIP Advances. - 2158-3226 .- 2158-3226. ; 4:10, s. 107101-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gold nanoparticle films are of interest in several branches of science and technology, and accurate sample characterization is needed but technically demanding. We prepared such films by DC magnetron sputtering and recorded their mass thickness by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The geometric thickness d(g)-from the substrate to the tops of the nanoparticles-was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The various techniques yielded an internally consistent characterization of the films. In particular, very similar results for d(g) were obtained by SEM with image analysis and by AFM.
  • Lykissa, Iliana, et al. (författare)
  • Electronic density-of-states of amorphous vanadium pentoxide films : Electrochemical data and density functional theory calculations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 115:18, s. 183701/1-/5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thin films of V2O5 were prepared by sputter deposition onto transparent and electrically conducting substrates and were found to be X-ray amorphous. Their electrochemical density of states was determined by chronopotentiometry and displayed a pronounced low-energy peak followed by an almost featureless contribution at higher energies. These results were compared with density functional theory calculations for amorphous V2O5. Significant similarities were found between measured data and computations; specifically, the experimental low-energy peak corresponds to a split-off part of the conduction band apparent in the computations. Furthermore, the calculations approximately reproduce the experimental band gap observed in optical measurements.
  • Valyukh, Iryna, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide thin films made by sputter deposition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. - : Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.. - 0927-0248 .- 1879-3398. ; 94:5, s. 724-732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electrochromic films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide were made by reactive dc magnetron sputtering and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The optical properties were investigated in detail by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry, using a multiple-sample approach. The W oxide film was modeled as a homogeneous isotropic layer, whereas the Ni oxide film was modeled as an anisotropic layer with the optical axis perpendicular to the surface. Parametric models of the two layers were then used to derive complex refractive index in the 300-1700-nm-range, film thickness, and surface roughness. A band gap of 3.15 eV was found for the W oxide film, using a Tauc-Lorentz parameterization. For the Ni oxide film, taken to have direct optical transitions, band gaps along the optical axis, perpendicular to it, and in an isotropic intermediate layer at the bottom of the film were found to be 3.95, 3.97, and 3.63 eV, respectively. Parameterization for the Ni oxide was made by use of the Lorentz model.
  • Waita, S. M., et al. (författare)
  • Electron Transport and Recombination in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputter Deposited and Thermally Annealed TiO2 Films
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. - 0022-0728 .- 1873-2569 .- 1572-6657. ; 605:2, s. 151-156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dye sensitized solar cells based on annealed titanium dioxide films prepared by oblique reactive DC magnetron sputtering have been investigated in detail. Electron transport and recombination were studied using intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy. Electron transport time as well as lifetime were found to increase upon lowering of the light intensity and to increase upon increasing the thickness of the TiO2 film. The properties are very similar to those observed for solar cells based on colloidal TiO2 films despite the morphologies being very different. In all cases, films are composed of a porous assembly of TiO2 nanocrystals. Grain boundaries with associated trap and/or energy barriers may explain the observed transport properties.
  • Coll, M., et al. (författare)
  • Towards Oxide Electronics: a Roadmap
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Applied Surface Science. - 0169-4332 .- 1873-5584. ; 482, s. 1-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At the end of a rush lasting over half a century, in which CMOS technology has been experiencing a constant and breathtaking increase of device speed and density, Moore’s law is approaching the insurmountable barrier given by the ultimate atomic nature of matter. A major challenge for 21st century scientists is finding novel strategies, concepts and materials for replacing silicon-based CMOS semiconductor technologies and guaranteeing a continued and steady technological progress in next decades. Among the materials classes candidate to contribute to this momentous challenge, oxide films and heterostructures are a particularly appealing hunting ground. The vastity, intended in pure chemical terms, of this class of compounds, the complexity of their correlated behaviour, and the wealth of functional properties they display, has already made these systems the subject of choice, worldwide, of a strongly networked, dynamic and interdisciplinary research community. Oxide science and technology has been the target of a wide four-year project, named Towards Oxide-Based Electronics (TO-BE), that has been recently running in Europe and has involved as participants several hundred scientists from 29 EU countries. In this review and perspective paper, published as a final deliverable of the TO-BE Action, the opportunities of oxides as future electronic materials for Information and Communication Technologies ICT and Energy are discussed. The paper is organized as a set of contributions, all selected and ordered as individual building blocks of a wider general scheme. After a brief preface by the editors and an introductory contribution, two sections follow. The first is mainly devoted to providing a perspective on the latest theoretical and experimental methods that are employed to investigate oxides and to produce oxide-based films, heterostructures and devices. In the second, all contributions are dedicated to different specific fields of applications of oxide thin films and heterostructures, in sectors as data storage and computing, optics and plasmonics, magnonics, energy conversion and harvesting, and power electronics.
  • Gonzalez-Borrero, P. P., et al. (författare)
  • Optical band-gap determination of nanostructured WO3 film
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters. - 0003-6951 .- 1077-3118. ; 96:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The optical band-gap energy of a nanostructured tungsten trioxide film is determined using the photoacoustic spectroscopy method under continuous light excitation. The mechanism of the photoacoustic signal generation is discussed. The band-gap energy is also computed by other methods. The absorption coefficient as well as the band-gap energy of three different crystal structures of tungsten trioxide is calculated by a first-principles Green's function approach using the projector augmented wave method. The theoretical study indicates that the cubic crystal structure shows good agreement with the experimental data.
  • Granqvist, Claes-Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Chromogenics for Sustainable Energy : Some Advances in Thermochromics and Electrochromics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Advances in Science and Technology. - 1662-0356. ; 75, s. 55-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chromogenic materials are able to change their optical properties in response to external stimuli such as temperature (in thermochromic materials) and electrical charge insertion (in electrochromic materials). Below we review some recent advances for these types of materials. Specifically we first discuss the limitations of thermochromic VO2 films for energy efficient fenestration and show from calculations that nanocomposites containing VO2 can have superior properties and display high luminous transmittance and large temperature-dependent solar transmittance modulation. Even better results may be found for nanoparticles of VO2:Mg. In the second part of the paper we survey some recent progress for electrochromic devices and show that W oxide films have increased coloration efficiency when some Ni oxide is added. We also present initial results for flexible electrochromic foils produced by roll-to-roll coating and continuous lamination.
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