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Sökning: WFRF:(Gratacos M)

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  • Bryois, J, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic identification of cell types underlying brain complex traits yields insights into the etiology of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:5, s. 482-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson’s disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson’s disease. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
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  • Duncan, Laramie, et al. (författare)
  • Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - 1535-7228. ; 174:9, s. 850-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes.Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h(2)SNP]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (rg) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes.Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h(2)SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes.Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.
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  • Baños, N., et al. (författare)
  • Mid-trimester sonographic cervical consistency index to predict spontaneous preterm birth in a low-risk population
  • ????
  • Ingår i: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0960-7692.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of mid-trimester sonographic cervical consistency index (CCI) for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in low-risk pregnancies and to compare its performance with that of mid-trimester sonographic cervical-length (CL) measurement. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of women with a singleton pregnancy examined by ultrasound at 19+0 to 24+6weeks' gestation. All women underwent transvaginal ultrasound examination of the cervix, but CCI and CL were measured, offline, only in women without a risk factor for sPTB. Staff and participants were blinded to CL and CCI results. CCI was obtained by calculating the ratio between the anteroposterior diameter of the uterine cervix at maximum compression and at rest. The primary outcome was prediction of sPTB before 37+0weeks. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were produced and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the optimal cut-off based on the ROC curve and for the 1st, 5th and 10th centiles of CCI and CL. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to estimate intra- and interobserver agreement and reliability for measurement of CCI and CL. Results: Of the 749 women who underwent ultrasound examination of the cervix, 532 were included for analysis. The rates of sPTB before 37+0 and before 34+0weeks were 4.1% (22/532) and 1.3% (7/532), respectively. The rates of short cervix <25mm and ≤20mm were 0.9% (5/532) and 0.4% (2/532), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) with regard to predicting sPTB before 37+0weeks was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93) for CCI compared with 0.68 (95% CI, 0.56-0.81) for CL (P=0.03). The optimal cut-off based on the ROC curve was 64.6% for CCI (sensitivity, 77.3%; specificity, 82.7%) and that for CL was 37.9mm (sensitivity, 72.7%; specificity, 61.2%). The AUC with regard to predicting sPTB before 34+0weeks was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71-1.0) for CCI compared with 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-0.94) for CL (P=0.25). The optimal cut-off based on the ROC curve was 63.6% for CCI (sensitivity, 85.7%; specificity, 84.0%) and that for CL was 37.9mm (sensitivity, 85.7%; specificity, 61.3%). Intraobserver ICC was >0.90 both for CCI and CL, while interobserver ICC was 0.89 for CCI and 0.90 for CL. Conclusions: Second-trimester CCI is a better predictor of sPTB <37weeks in low-risk pregnancies than is CL. External validation is needed as well as studies assessing the value of CCI as a screening tool in unselected and high-risk populations.
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