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  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
  • Gonzalez-Alfonso, E., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel observations of water vapour in Markarian 231
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Mrk 231 reveals up to seven rotational lines of water (H2O) in emission, including a very high-lying (Eupper = 640 K) line detected at a 4 sigma level, within the Herschel/SPIRE wavelength range (190
  • Hodge, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Source Catalog and Multiplicity
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 768:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 survey of 126 submillimeter sources from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS). Our 870 mu m survey with ALMA (ALESS) has produced maps similar to 3x deeper and with a beam area similar to 200x smaller than the original LESS observations, doubling the current number of interferometrically-observed submillimeter sources. The high resolution of these maps allows us to resolve sources that were previously blended and accurately identify the origin of the submillimeter emission. We discuss the creation of the ALESS submillimeter galaxy (SMG) catalog, including the main sample of 99 SMGs and a supplementary sample of 32 SMGs. We find that at least 35% (possibly up to 50%) of the detected LABOCA sources have been resolved into multiple SMGs, and that the average number of SMGs per LESS source increases with LESS flux density. Using the (now precisely known) SMG positions, we empirically test the theoretical expectation for the uncertainty in the single-dish source positions. We also compare our catalog to the previously predicted radio/mid-infrared counterparts, finding that 45% of the ALESS SMGs were missed by this method. Our similar to 1 ''.6 resolution allows us to measure a size of similar to 9 kpc x 5 kpc for the rest-frame similar to 300 mu m emission region in one resolved SMG, implying a star formation rate surface density of 80 M-circle dot yr(-1) kpc(-2), and we constrain the emission regions in the remaining SMGs to be
  • Karim, A., et al. (författare)
  • An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: high-resolution 870 mu m source counts
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 432:1, s. 2-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the 870-mu m band derived from arcsecond-resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-mu m-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the 0 degrees.5x0 degrees.5 the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) Extended Chandra Deep Field South submillimetre survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma 870(mu m) similar to 0.4 mJy, some approximately three times deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of similar to 1.5 arcsec compared to similar to 19 arcsec for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pinpoint the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blending of unresolved SMGs. The difficulty which well-constrained theoretical models have in reproducing the high surface densities of SMGs, thus remains. However, our observations do show that all of the very brightest sources in the LESS sample, S-870 (mu m) greater than or similar to 12 mJy, comprise emission from multiple, fainter SMGs, each with 870-mu m fluxes of less than or similar to 9 mJy. This implies a natural limit to the star formation rate in SMGs of less than or similar to 10(3) M-circle dot yr(-1), which in turn suggests that the space densities of z > 1 galaxies with gas masses in excess of similar to 5 x 10(10) M-circle dot is
  • Pagels, A., et al. (författare)
  • Millimetre VLBI monitoring of AGN with sub-milliarcsecond resolution
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: in "Proceedings of the 7th European VLBI Network Symposium", Oct. 2004, Toledo, eds. R. Bachiller, F. Colomer, J.F. Desmurs, P. de Vicente, Obs. Astronómico Nacional, Alcala de Henares, Spain. ; , s. 7-10
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • van der Werf, P.P., et al. (författare)
  • Black hole accretion and star formation as drivers of gas excitation and chemistry in Markarian 231
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a full high resolution SPIRE FTS spectrum of the nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. In total 25 lines are detected, including CO J = 5-4 through J = 13-12, 7 rotational lines of H2O, 3 of OH+ and one line each of H2O+, CH+, and HF. We find that the excitation of the CO rotational levels up to J = 8 can be accounted for by UV radiation from star formation. However, the approximately flat luminosity distribution of the CO lines over the rotational ladder above J = 8 requires the presence of a separate source of excitation for the highest CO lines. We explore X-ray heating by the accreting supermassive black hole in Mrk 231 as a source of excitation for these lines, and find that it can reproduce the observed luminosities. We also consider a model with dense gas in a strong UV radiation field to produce the highest CO lines, but find that this model strongly overpredicts the hot dust mass in Mrk 231. Our favoured model consists of a star forming disk of radius 560 pc, containing clumps of dense gas exposed to strong UV radiation, dominating the emission of CO lines up to J = 8. X-rays from the accreting supermassive black hole in Mrk 231 dominate the excitation and chemistry of the inner disk out to a radius of 160 pc, consistent with the X-ray power of the AGN in Mrk 231. The extraordinary luminosity of the OH+ and H2O+ lines reveals the signature of X-ray driven excitation and chemistry in this region.
  • Hodge, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • Kiloparsec-Scale Dust Disks in High-Redshift Luminous Submillimeter Galaxies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 833:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present high-resolution (0 ''.6) 870 mu m Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging of 16 luminous (LIR similar to 4 x 10(12) L-circle dot) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from the ALESS survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This dust imaging traces the dust-obscured star formation in these z similar to 2.5 galaxies on similar to 1.3 kpc scales. The emission has a median effective radius of R-e = 0 ''.24 +/- 0 ''.02, corresponding to a typical physical size of R-e= 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc. We derive a median Sersic index of n = 0.9 +/- 0.2, implying that the dust emission is remarkably disk-like at the current resolution and sensitivity. We use different weighting schemes with the visibilities to search for clumps on 0 ''.12. (similar to 1.0 kpc) scales, but we find no significant evidence for clumping in the majority of cases. Indeed, we demonstrate using simulations that the observed morphologies are generally consistent with smooth exponential disks, suggesting that caution should be exercised when identifying candidate clumps in even moderate signal-to-noise ratio interferometric data. We compare our maps to comparable-resolution Hubble Space Telescope H-160-band images, finding that the stellar morphologies appear significantly more extended and disturbed, and suggesting that major mergers may be responsible for driving the formation of the compact dust disks we observe. The stark contrast between the obscured and unobscured morphologies may also have implications for SED fitting routines that assume the dust is co-located with the optical/near-IR continuum emission. Finally, we discuss the potential of the current bursts of star formation to transform the observed galaxy sizes and light profiles, showing that the z similar to 0 descendants of these SMGs are expected to have stellar masses, effective radii, and gas surface densities consistent with the most compact massive (M* similar to 1-2 x 10(11) M-circle dot) early-type galaxies observed locally.
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