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Sökning: WFRF:(Grioni S.)

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1.
  • Matt, C. E., et al. (författare)
  • Electron scattering, charge order, and pseudogap physics in La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4 An angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121 .- 1550-235X. ; 92:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report an angle-resolved photoemission study of the charge stripe ordered La1.6-xNd0.4SrxCuO4 (Nd-LSCO) system. A comparative and quantitative line-shape analysis is presented as the system evolves from the overdoped regime into the charge ordered phase. On the overdoped side (x = 0.20), a normal-state antinodal spectral gap opens upon cooling below 80 K. In this process, spectral weight is preserved but redistributed to larger energies. A correlation between this spectral gap and electron scattering is found. A different line shape is observed in the antinodal region of charge ordered Nd-LSCO x = 1/8. Significant low-energy spectral weight appears to be lost. These observations are discussed in terms of spectral-weight redistribution and gapping originating from charge stripe ordering.
2.
  • Nitter, M., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma methionine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534. ; 25:8, s. 1609-1615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. Patients and methods: We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionine, choline, betaine (trimethylglycine), and dimethylglycine (DMG) in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Our study included 1367 incident CRC cases (965 colon and 402 rectum) and 2323 controls matched by gender, age group, and study center. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CRC risk were estimated by conditional logistic regression, comparing the fifth to the first quintile of plasma concentrations. Results: Overall, methionine (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99, P-trend = 0.05), choline (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.99, P-trend = 0.07), and betaine (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66-1.09, P-trend = 0.06) concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk of borderline significance. In participants with folate concentration below the median of 11.3 nmol/l, high betaine concentration was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00, P-trend = 0.02), which was not observed for those having a higher folate status. Among women, but not men, high choline concentration was associated with decreased CRC risk (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P-trend = 0.01). Plasma DMG was not associated with CRC risk. Conclusions: Individuals with high plasma concentrations of methionine, choline, and betaine may be at reduced risk of CRC.
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3.
  • Ocké, M C, et al. (författare)
  • Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 63:4s, s. 3-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate <0.88 or >2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Results: Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. Conclusions: These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, S3-S15; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.72
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4.
  • Langenberg, C., et al. (författare)
  • Design and cohort description of the InterAct Project: an examination of the interaction of genetic and lifestyle factors on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 54:9, s. 2272-2282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studying gene-lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene-lifestyle studies are lacking. This case-cohort study aims to investigate how genetic and potentially modifiable lifestyle and behavioural factors, particularly diet and physical activity, interact in their influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurring in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts between 1991 and 2007 from eight of the ten EPIC countries were ascertained and verified. Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random-effects meta-analyses were used to investigate differences in diabetes incidence by age and sex. A total of 12,403 verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 3.99 million person-years of follow-up of 340,234 EPIC participants eligible for InterAct. We defined a centre-stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals for comparative analyses. Individuals with incident diabetes who were randomly selected into the subcohort (n = 778) were included as cases in the analyses. All prevalent diabetes cases were excluded from the study. InterAct cases were followed-up for an average of 6.9 years; 49.7% were men. Mean baseline age and age at diagnosis were 55.6 and 62.5 years, mean BMI and waist circumference values were 29.4 kg/m(2) and 102.7 cm in men, and 30.1 kg/m(2) and 92.8 cm in women, respectively. Risk of type 2 diabetes increased linearly with age, with an overall HR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.48-1.64) for a 10 year age difference, adjusted for sex. A male excess in the risk of incident diabetes was consistently observed across all countries, with a pooled HR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.39-1.64), adjusted for age. InterAct is a large, well-powered, prospective study that will inform our understanding of the interplay between genes and lifestyle factors on the risk of type 2 diabetes development.
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5.
  • Nagel, G, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C and E intake and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 119:3, s. 753-765
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • So far, studies on dietary antioxidant intake, including beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. Thus, we addressed this question in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up time of 8.8 years, 7,502 primary invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All analyses were run stratified by menopausal status at recruitment and, additionally, by smoking status, alcohol intake, use of exogenous hormones and use of dietary supplements. In the multivariate analyses, dietary intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E was not associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal [highest vs. lowest quintile: HR, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.85-1.27), 1.12 (0.92-1.36) and 1.11 (0.84-1.46), respectively] and postmenopausal women [0.93 (0.82-1.04), 0.98 (0.87-1.11) and 0.92 (0.77-1.11), respectively]. However, in postmenopausal women using exogenous hormones, high intake of beta-carotene [highest vs. lowest quintile; HR 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96), P (trend) 0.06] and vitamin C [0.88 (0.72-1.07), P (trend) 0.05] was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. In addition, dietary beta-carotene was associated with a decreased risk in postmenopausal women with high alcohol intake. Overall, dietary intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E was not related to breast cancer risk in neither pre- nor postmenopausal women. However, in subgroups of postmenopausal women, a weak protective effect between beta-carotene and vitamin E from food and breast cancer risk cannot be excluded.
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6.
  • Wessel, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fasting glucose and insulin are intermediate traits for type 2 diabetes. Here we explore the role of coding variation on these traits by analysis of variants on the HumanExome BeadChip in 60,564 non-diabetic individuals and in 16,491 T2D cases and 81,877 controls. We identify a novel association of a low-frequency nonsynonymous SNV in GLP1R (A316T; rs10305492; MAF = 1.4%) with lower FG (beta = -0.09 +/- 0.01 mmol l(-1), P = 3.4 x 10(-12)), T2D risk (OR[95% CI] = 0.86[0.76-0.96], P = 0.010), early insulin secretion (beta = -0.07 +/- 0.035 pmol(insulin) mmol(glucose)(-1), P = 0.048), but higher 2-h glucose (beta = 0.16 +/- 0.05 mmol l(-1), P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We identify a gene-based association with FG at G6PC2 (p(SKAT) = 6.8 x 10(-6)) driven by four rare protein-coding SNVs (H177Y, Y207S, R283X and S324P). We identify rs651007 (MAF = 20%) in the first intron of ABO at the putative promoter of an antisense lncRNA, associating with higher FG (beta = 0.02 +/- 0.004 mmol l(-1), P = 1.3 x 10(-8)). Our approach identifies novel coding variant associations and extends the allelic spectrum of variation underlying diabetes-related quantitative traits and T2D susceptibility.
7.
  • Abbas, S, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: the EPIC-InterAct study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 68:2, s. 196-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.
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8.
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9.
  • Brand, J. S., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and Onset of Natural Menopause: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition EDITORIAL COMMENT
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0029-7828. ; 70:8, s. 507-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The age at natural menopause (ANM) in the Western world ranges from 40 to 60 years, with an average onset of 51 years. The exact mechanisms underlying the timing of ANM are not completely understood. Both genetic and environmental factors are involved. The best-established environmental factor affecting ANM is smoking; menopause occurs 1 to 2 years earlier in smokers. In addition to genetic and environmental factors, chronic metabolic diseases may influence ANM. Some evidence suggests that diabetes may accelerate menopausal onset. With more women of childbearing age receiving a diagnosis of diabetes, it is important to examine the impact of diabetes on reproductive health. This study was designed to determine whether ANM occurs at an earlier age among women who have diabetes before menopause than in women without diabetes. Data were obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a large multicenter prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors and the incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases. A cohort of 519,978 men and women, mostly aged 27 to 70 years, were recruited primarily from the general population between 1992 and 2000. A total of 367,331 women participated in the EPIC study. After exclusions, 258,898 of these women met study inclusion criteria. Diabetes status at baseline and menopausal age were based on self-report and were obtained through questionnaires. Participants were asked if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes and if so at what age. Associations of diabetes and age at diabetes diagnosis with ANM were estimated using time-dependent Cox regression analyses, with stratification by center and adjustments for age, smoking, reproductive, and known diabetes risk factors including smoking and with age from birth to menopause or censoring as the underlying time scale. Overall, there was no statistically significant lower risk of becoming menopausal among women with diabetes than women with no diabetes; the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.94, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.89 to 1.01. However, compared with women with no diabetes, women with diabetes before the age of 20 years had an earlier menopause (10-20 years [HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.01] and <10 years [HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.03-2.43]), whereas women with diabetes at age 50 years or older had a later menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). No association with ANM was found for diabetes onset between the ages 20 and 50 years. Strengths of the study include its large sample size and the measurement of a broad set of potential confounders. However, there were several limitations. First, results may have been underestimated because of survival bias. Second, the sequence of menopause and diabetes in women with a late age at diabetes is uncertain, as both events occur in a short period, and both diabetes and menopause status were based on self-report, not verified by medical records. Third, no distinction was made between types 1 and 2 diabetes. Although there is no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, the data suggest that early-onset diabetes may accelerate menopause. The delaying effect of late-onset diabetes on ANM is not in agreement with other studies suggesting the opposite association.
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10.
  • Cooper, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 66:10, s. 1082-1092
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect.
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